Pronoun – BSL English on Phone

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What is a pronoun?
pronoun is a word that is used instead of a noun or noun phrase. Pronouns refer to either a noun that has already been mentioned or to a noun that does not need to be named specifically.
The most common pronouns are the personal pronouns, which refer to the person or people speaking or writing (first person), the person or people being spoken to (second person), or other people or things (third person). Like nouns, personal pronouns can function as either the subject of a verb or the object of a verb or preposition: “She likes him, but he loves her.” Most of the personal pronouns have different subject and object forms:
There are a number of other types of pronouns. The interrogative pronouns—particularly whatwhichwhowhom, and whose—introduce questions for which a noun is the answer, as in “Whichdo you prefer?”
Possessive pronouns refer to things or people that belong to someone. The main possessive pronouns are mineyourshishersitsours, and theirs.
The four demonstrative pronounsthisthatthese, and those—distinguish the person or thing being referred to from other people or things; they are identical to the demonstrative adjectives.
Relative pronouns introduce a subordinate clause, a part of a sentence that includes a subject and verb but does not form a sentence by itself. The main relative pronouns are thatwhichwhowhomwhat, and whose.
Reflexive pronouns refer back to the subject of a sentence or clause and are formed by adding -self or -selves to a personal pronoun or possessive adjective, as in myselfherselfourselves, and itself.
Indefinite pronouns, such as everybodyeithernone, and something, do not refer to a specific person or thing, and typically refer to an unidentified or unfamiliar person or thing.
The words it and there can also be used like pronouns when the rules of grammar require a subject but no noun is actually being referred to. Both are usually used at the beginning of a sentence or clause, as in “It was almost noon” and “There is some cake left.” These are sometimes referred to as expletives.
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NOUNS-British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone

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British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone

A noun is a part of speech that identifies a person, place, thing, or idea. In this lesson, in addition to learning how to identify nouns also through English on Phone, you’ll learn the difference between proper and common nouns and a bit about how nouns function in sentences which can help in the spoken english. We also provide English Speaking Course at BSL.
What Are Nouns?
You probably remember learning about nouns at some point, but you may be hard-pressed to explain what they are. Nouns are incredibly important in spoken and written language, but the good news is that they’re also pretty easy to understand. Figuring out the basics of how nouns operate in sentences will help you learn lots of other more complex rules down the road.
Definition of Nouns
A noun is a part of speech, and parts of speech simply refer to types of words. You may be familiar with a lot of basic parts of speech, like nouns, verbs, and adjectives. Nouns identify people, places, things, and ideas. Nouns can be categorized as either common or proper. Common nouns name general people, places, things, and ideas, while proper nouns name specific people, places, things, and ideas. For example, examples of nouns naming people would be:

Common NounProper Noun
presidentBarack Obama
teacherMrs. Sanders
brotherJoe

In our first column, we have general, or common, nouns. In our second column, we have specific, or proper, nouns. Note that typically, the first letter in a common noun isn’t capitalized unless that common noun is the first word in a sentence. The first letter in a proper noun is typically capitalized.
Nouns also identify places. Common nouns naming places include ‘hometown,’ ‘country,’ and ‘airport.’ Corresponding specific, proper nouns would include ‘Cincinnati,’ ‘Argentina,’ and ‘Hartsfield International Airport.’

Types of noun
There are several different types of noun, as follows:

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Common noun
A common noun is a noun that refers to people or things in general, e.g. boy, country, bridge, city, birth, day, happiness
Proper noun
A proper noun is a name that identifies a particular person, place, or thing, e.g. Steven, Africa, London, Monday. In written English, proper nouns begin with capital letters.

Concrete noun
A concrete noun is a noun which refers to people and to things that exist physically and can be seen, touched, smelled, heard, or tasted. Examples include dog, building, coffee, tree, rain, beach, tune.

Abstract noun
An abstract noun is a noun which refers to ideas, qualities, and conditions – things that cannot be seen or touched and things which have no physical reality, e.g. truth, danger, happiness, time, friendship, humour.

Collective nouns
Collective nouns refer to groups of people or things, e.g. audience, family, government, team, jury. In American English, most collective nouns are treated as singular, with a singular verb:

The whole family was at the table.

In British English, the preceding sentence would be correct, but it would also be correct to treat the collective noun as a plural, with a plural verb:

The whole family were at the table.

For more information about this, see matching verbs to collective nouns.

A noun may belong to more than one category. For example, happiness is both a common noun and an abstract noun, while Mount Everest is both a concrete noun and a proper noun.

Count and mass nouns
Nouns can be either countable or uncountable. Countable nouns (or count nouns) are those that refer to something that can be counted. Uncountable nouns (or mass nouns) do not typically refer to things that can be counted and so they do not regularly have a plural form.

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E-Mail Etiquette : In the age of the Internet

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In the age of the Internet, you might find yourself clicking “reply,” typing up a quick response, and hitting “send” without giving so much as a thought about what you’ve just written. But experts agree that your e-mail behaviour has the potential to sabotage your reputation both personally and professionally. Inc.com got in touch with some of the industry’s most seasoned e-mail experts and had them weigh in on how to perfect your e-mail etiquette.
1. Only discuss public matters. We’ve all heard the stories about a “private” e-mail that ended up being passed around to the entire company, and in some cases, all over the Internet. One of the most important things to consider when it comes to e-mail etiquette is whether the matter you’re discussing is a public one, or something that should be talked about behind closed doors. Ask yourself if the topic being discussed is something you’d write on company letterhead or post on a bulletin board for all to see before clicking “send.” –Judith Kallos, author of E-Mail Etiquette Made Easy, E-Mail: The Manual, and E-Mail: A Write It Well Guide
2. Briefly introduce yourself. Do not assume the person receiving your e-mail knows who you are, or remembers meeting you. If you are uncertain whether the recipient recognizes your e-mail address or name, include a simple reminder of who you are in relation to the person you are reaching out to; a formal and extensive biography of yourself is not necessary. –Peggy Duncan, personal productivity expert and author of Conquer Email Overload with Better Habits, Etiquette, and Outlook 2007
3. Don’t “e-mail angry.” E-mailing with bad news, firing a client or vendor, expressing anger, reprimanding someone, disparaging other people in e-mails (particularly if you’re saying something less than kind about your boss) are all major no-no’s. Because e-mail can seem so informal, many people fall into this trap. Always remember that e-mail correspondence lasts forever. –Lindsey Pollak, career and workplace expert, e-mail etiquette consultant, and author of Getting From College to Career
4. Use exclamation points sparingly. The maximum number of exclamation points in a business e-mail? One. Otherwise, you risk looking childish and unprofessional. –Pollak
5. Be careful with confidential information. Refrain from discussing confidential information in e-mails such as someone’s tax information or the particulars of a highly-sensitive business deal. Should the e-mail get into the wrong person’s hands, you could face serious – even legal – repercussions. –Peter Post, director of the Burlington, Vermont-based Emily Post Institute, which offers etiquette advice and answers to manners questions such as wedding etiquette, parenting issues and table manners.
6. Respond in a timely fashion. Unless you work in some type of emergency capacity, it’s not necessary to be available the instant an e-mail arrives. Depending on the nature of the e-mail and the sender, responding within 24 to 48 hours is acceptable. –Duncan
7. Refrain from sending one-liners. “Thanks,” and “Oh, OK” do not advance the conversation in any way. Feel free to put “No Reply Necessary” at the top of the e-mail when you don’t anticipate a response. –Duncan
8. Avoid using shortcuts to real words, emoticons, jargon, or slang. Words from grown, business people using shortcuts such as “4 u” (instead of “for you”), “Gr8” (for great) in business-related e-mail is not acceptable. If you wouldn’t put a smiley face or emoticon on your business correspondence, you shouldn’t put it in an e-mail message. Any of the above has the potential to make you look less than professional. –Duncan
9. Keep it clean. Nothing annoys recipients more than when people reply and leave the messages messy, for example, an e-mail chain that includes excessive carets (>>>), or pages and pages of e-mail addresses that weren’t protected using Bcc. You can get rid of carets by selecting the text, Ctrl+F to use the Find and Replace command to find a caret and replace all of them with nothing. You can get rid of all the e-mail addresses just by deleting. Clean it up, then send it. –Duncan
10. Be clear in your subject line. With inboxes being clogged by hundreds of e-mails a day, it’s crucial that your subject line gets to the point. It should be reasonably simple and descriptive of what you have written about. Expect that any e-mail with a cute, vague, or obscure subject will get trashed. Also, proof your subject line as carefully as you would proof the rest of the e-mail. –Post
11. Don’t get mistaken for Spam. Avoid subject lines that are in all caps, all lower case, and those that include URLs and exclamation points – which tend to look like Spam to the recipient. –Judith Kallos
12. Your subject line must match the message. Never open an old e-mail, hit Reply, and send a message that has nothing to do with the previous one. Do not hesitate to change the subject as soon as the thread or content of the e-mail chain changes. –Peggy Duncan, personal productivity expert and author of Conquer Email Overload with Better Habits, Etiquette, and Outlook 2007
13. Provide a warning when sending large attachments. Sending unannounced large attachments can clog the receiver’s inbox and cause other important e-mails to bounce. If you are sending something that is over 500KB, senders should ask, ‘Would you mind if I sent you an attachment? When would be the best time for you?’ –Kallos
14. No more than two attachments, and provide a logical name. Unless it’s been specifically requested, refrain from sending a message with more than two attachments. Also, give the attached file(s) a logical name so the recipient knows at a glance the subject and the sender. –Duncan
15. Send or copy others only on a need to know basis. Before you click Reply All or put names on the Cc or Bcc lines, ask yourself if all the recipients need the information in your message. If they don’t, why send it? Take time to send your messages to the right people. –Duncan
16. Beware of the “reply all.” Do not hit “reply all” unless every member on the e-mail chain needs to know. You want to make sure that you are not sending everyone on a list your answer-;whether they needed to know or not. –Duncan
17. Pick up the phone. When a topic has lots of parameters that need to be explained or negotiated and will generate too many questions and confusion, don’t handle it via e-mail. Also, e-mail should not be used for last minute cancellations of meetings, lunches, interviews, and never for devastating news. If you have an employee or a friend you need to deliver bad news to, a phone call is preferable. If it’s news you have to deliver to a large group, e-mail is more practical. –Duncan
18. Evaluate the importance of your e-mail. Don’t overuse the high priority option. If you overuse this feature, few people will take it seriously. A better solution is to use descriptive subject lines that explain exactly what a message is about. –Duncan
19. Maintain privacy. If you’re sending a message to a group of people and you need to protect the privacy of your list, you should always use “Bcc.” Additionally, avoid giving out e-mail addresses to a third party (such as an Evite, newsletter, etc). Make sure that addresses you willingly hand over to third parties stay with them, especially when the service they’re offering is free. –Duncan
20. Keep it short and get to the point. The long e-mail is a thing of the past. Write concisely, with lots of white space, so as to not overwhelm the recipient. Make sure when you look at what you’re sending it doesn’t look like a burden to read – feel free to use bullet points. The person reading your e-mail should not have to dig through several paragraphs in order to figure out what you’re asking. You should state the purpose of the e-mail within the first two sentences. Be clear, and be up front. –Lindsey Pollak, career and workplace expert, e-mail etiquette consultant, and author of Getting From College to Career
21. Know your audience. Your e-mail greeting and sign-off should be consistent with the level of respect and formality of the person you’re communicating with. Also, write for the person who will be reading it – if they tend to be very polite and formal, write in that language. The same goes for a receiver who tends to be more informal and relaxed. –Lindsey Pollak, career and workplace expert, e-mail etiquette consultant, and author of Getting From College to Career
22. Always include a signature. You never want someone to have to look up how to get in touch with you. If you’re social media savvy, include all of your social media information in your signature as well. Your e-mail signature is a great way to let people know more about you, especially when your e-mail address is does not include your full name or company. –Pollak
23. Only use an auto-responder when necessary. An automatic response that says, “Thank you for your e-mail message. I will respond to you as soon as I can” is useless. However, one thing these messages do great is alert spammers that your e-mail is real and that they can add you to their spam list. –Peggy Duncan, personal productivity expert and author of Conquer Email Overload with Better Habits, Etiquette, and Outlook 2007
24. Train your staff. Business owners should make sure their staff is trained in e-mail communications – don’t assume they know what they’re doing, and what is considered professional. Set up e-mail standards that everyone at the company should abide by. –Pollak
25. Your e-mail is a reflection of you. Every e-mail you send adds to, or detracts from your reputation. If your e-mail is scattered, disorganized, and filled with mistakes, the recipient will be inclined to think of you as a scattered, careless, and disorganized businessperson. Other people’s opinions matter and in the professional world, their perception of you will be critical to your success. –Peter Post, director of the Burlington, Vermont-based Emily Post Institute, which offers etiquette advice and answers to manners questions such as wedding etiquette, parenting issues and table manners.

MOST MISPRONOUNCE WORDS IN ENGLISH

  1. Almond: This dry fruit is pronounced as Ah-mund, (pronunciation of u as in sun). L is silent. You should not pronounce it as Aal-mund.
  2. Bury(दफनाना) : It is pronounced as Be-ri, the same as berry. And not Beu-ri or Burr-ri. (Mumtaz Mahal is buried inside Taj.
  3. Dengue: This disease is pronounced as Den-gee (pronunciation of ‘gee’ as in cheese). You should not pronounce it as Den-goo.
  4. Dessert(Sweet): It is pronounced as dizz-urt, (pronunciation of u as in sun). And not as des-ert which is a barren land.
  5. Schedule: According to US English, sked-jule is the correct pronunciation for this word. According to British English, shed-yool is the correct pronunciation.
  6. Zebra: According to US English. the sound of the letter ‘Z’ is ‘Zee’. So, Zee-bra. (pronunciaiton of ee as in tree). But according to British English, it can be Zeb-ra. (pronunciation of Zeb as in egg).
  7. Niche(A particular field or sector): In US English, it can be pronounced as Nee-sh (pronunciation of Nee as in tree). But according to British English, it is pronounced as Nitch (as in switch).(You should find a job in your niche)
  8. Bowl: It is pronounced as bo-hl (pronunciation of o as in roll). Not as ba-ool which is wrong.
  9. Truth: It is pronounced as troo-th (as in boo) and not tru-th.
  10. Epitome(The symbol or example): It is generally pronounced as ep-i-tome (as in foam) But the correct pronunciation is ep-i-tummy.(Mahatma Gandhi is the epitome of non-violence)
  11. Develop: The correct pronunciation is D+vay+lupp, and not as Day+vay+lupp.
  12. Pizza: The correct pronunciation is peet-zuh, (peet pronounced as in wheat). And not Pi-za.
  13. Monk(भिक्षु): It should be pronounced as munk as in drunk. It is often mispronounced as mawnk (mon as in Montreal).
  14. Genre(kind or type of arts): The correct pronunciation is Zhon-ruh, (Zh is a sound as in vision, and ruh as in umbrella). It is often mispronounced as Jen-ner.(this is my favourite genre of music)
  15. Quote: The correct pronunciation is kwo-te. It is often pronounced as coat which is wrong.
  16. Sour: The correct pronunciation is sower (as in power). It is often pronounced as saar which is wrong.
  17. Ethyl, methyl: The correct pronunciation is A-thil, mey-thil. (thil as in hill) But these words are often pronounced as eethail, meethail (aail as in ice).
  18. Porsche: The correct pronunciation is Por-shuh. It is often mispronounced as porsh.
  19. Salon: It should be pronounced as sa-lon, (sa as in Apple, lon as in John) It is often pronounced as suh-loon which is incorrect.
  20. Police: The correct pronunciation is Puh-leece. It is often mispronounced as Poo-leece.
  21. Chauvinism: The correct pronunciation is shoh-vuh-niz-uh-m. It is mispronounced as chow-vi-ni-zum.
  22. Coupon: The correct pronunciation is Koo-pon (pon as in pawn). It is often mispronounced as koo-pun (pronunciation of u as in sun).
  23. Gauge: The correct pronunciation is gayj. It is often mispronounced as gauj.
  24. Raspberry: The correct pronunciation is Raz-ber-ee. The fruit is often pronounced as rasp-berry which is incorrect, the P should be silent. .
  25. Cocoa: It should be pronounced as koh-koh and not koh-koh-wa.
  26. The correct pronunciation is vittles. It is often pronounced as vik-choo-uls which is incorrect.
  27. Plumber: Its correct pronunciation is plume(r) with b silent.

 

How to use proper Prepositions in our sentences!

PREPOSITIONS
Prepositions are words which begin prepositional phrases.
prepositional phrase is a group of words containing a preposition, a noun or pronoun object of the preposition, and any modifiers of the object.
A preposition sits in front of (is “pre-positioned” before) its object.
The following words are the most commonly used prepositions:

aboutbelowexceptingofftoward
abovebeneathforonunder
acrossbeside(s)fromontounderneath
afterbetweeninoutuntil
againstbeyondin front ofoutsideup
alongbutinsideoverupon
amongbyin spite ofpastup to
aroundconcerninginstead ofregardingwith
at despiteintosincewithin
because ofdownlikethroughwithout
beforeduringnearthroughoutwith regard to
behindexceptoftowith respect to

It is useful to locate prepositional phrases in sentences since any noun or pronoun within the prepositional phrase must be the preposition’s object and, therefore, cannot be misidentified as a verb’s direct object.
To the store is a prepositional phrase.
Store is the object of the preposition to, not the direct object of the verb drove.

Car is the direct object of the verb drove.
To the grocery store is a prepositional phrase.

NOTE:
A word that looks like a preposition but is actually part of a verb is called a particle.
Held up is a verb meaning “to rob.”
Therefore, up is not a preposition, and bank is not the object of a preposition.
Instead, bank is the direct object of the verb held up.

To avoid confusing prepositions with particles, test by moving the word (up) and words following it to the front of the sentence:
Up the bank four armed men held.
If the resulting sentence does not make sense, then the word belongs with the verb and is a particle, not a preposition.
Note the difference:
The resulting sentence makes sense.  Therefore, up is a preposition.
The resulting sentence does not make sense.  Therefore, up is a particle in this sentence.

The following examples illustrate the difference between prepositions and particles:

Some other examples of particles:

give inturn inpull throughwore outbroke up
go in forput in forbring upfound outblow up
look upmake uplook over

 

Why farmers adopt certain technologies but leave out others

Exactly 125 years ago, John Augustus Voelcker, a British Agricultural Scientist, warned in his ‘Report on the Improvement of Indian Agriculture’: “India is a country about which one cannot make a ‘general remark’ and, certainly, with regard to Indian agriculture, this is strictly true.” These words are just as true today as they were in 1893 when Voelcker first published them.
Are Indian farmers slow to adopt scientific methods of agriculture? Like Voelcker, my answer is both yes and no. The same farmers in Punjab who grow brand new varieties of wheat like HD 3086 also continue to use 30-year-old, water-guzzling varieties of paddy like PUSA-44. Similarly, in Bihar, you can find farmers who are growing both modern hybrid maize and a 50-year-old wheat variety, Lok 1, in adjacent plots in the same cropping season. Most farmers in India now own mobile phones and many use them regularly to find information on crop prices, but pay little attention to messages on best practices for their crops.
A more appropriate question, therefore, is: why do farmers readily adopt some technologies, but not others? Unfortunately, there are no easy answers. Instances of both rapid and slow diffusion of agricultural technologies are more like Tolstoy’s unhappy families. Each has its own reasons. Still, there are some common hurdles to the diffusion of innovation in agriculture. I will discuss two of them here: poor communication of science to farmers; and excessive reliance on distortionary subsidies to promote technology adoption.
The ongoing Soil Health Card (SHC) scheme is a case study of ineffective communication between scientists and farmers. Soil tests are often poorly done and farmers know it. Even when the test is done well, we translate test results into recommendations in ways that do not align with farmers’ interests. For example, since 2011, the price of phosphate and potash have more than doubled while the price of urea has remained unchanged, but the equations used to generate fertilizer recommendations have not changed. SHC recommendations try to maximise crop yields while farmers want to maximise profits. To add to that, test results and recommendations are printed in the SHC like they are presented in journal articles.
In a country in which nearly 44% adult women and 25% adult men in rural areas cannot read a sentence in their native language, how we communicate science to farmers is as important as the message itself. When poor quality science, uninformed by even the basic economics, is communicated to its audience, in a format alien to them, the outcome is what we are seeing with the SHC scheme: it has had no effect on fertiliser use in agriculture. Worse, we may even have sown the seeds of distrust in farmers towards science-based recommendations.
Subsidies are the government’s favoured policy tool to promote agricultural technology in India. Every technology, from quality seeds to new machines, is backed by high subsidies. If designed well, subsidies can accelerate technology adoption and create incentives for innovation. However, our public subsidies are often highly distortionary and mired in red tape and unnecessary regulations that stifle competition and limit farmers’ choices. 80-90% capital subsidy on solar pumps is a good example.
Such high subsidy encourages companies to add unnecessary bells and whistles to a product instead of developing cheaper versions of it. It also attracts players who are more interested in capturing the subsidy rather than developing the market with better products and after-sales services.
In a country dominated by smallholders, affordable access to any capital-intensive technology needs financial and institutional innovations that would reduce the capex requirement, ensure high capacity utilisation and create competitive rental markets.
High pro rata capital subsidy crowds out such innovations and does not allow the development of a non-subsidised market.
Distortionary subsidies have been around for decades and their glaring failures are evident to everyone. Yet, instead of learning from the experience, our policy makers continue to do more of the same while promising different results.
Many other major challenges to accelerating technology adoption by farmers like small fragmented holdings, high transaction cost of reaching smallholders or low levels of functional literacy among farmers require concerted grassroots level efforts, both by government and the civil society, in agriculture and non-agricultural sectors of the economy.
As opposed to that, more effective communication of science to farmers and rationalisation of farm subsidies, at least some of them, can be started by a small group of policy makers and technocrats, rather quickly, to create a huge impact on sustainable intensification of agriculture in India.
Avinash Kishore is a research fellow at IFPRI, New Delhi.
The views expressed are personal

Amazon delivers bedsheets, eye shadow at 11,562 feet

  • At an elevation of 11,562 feet, Leh is the highest spot in the world where Amazon offers speedy delivery
  • Local soldiers and monks are big customers for Amazon
  • The company began offering doorstep delivery in Leh as part of an effort to better serve the remotest corners of India

With big ambitions in India, Amazon has recruited hundreds of small businesses to get packages to the most remote customers — including those 11,562 feet up in the Himalayas. (Atul Loke/The New York Times)With big ambitions in India, Amazon has recruited hundreds of small businesses to get packages to the most rem… Read More

NEW DELHI: Perched high in the Himalayas, near India’s border with China, the tiny town of Leh sometimes seems as if it has been left behind by modern technology. Internet and cell phone service is spotty, the two roads to the outside world are snowed in every winter, and Buddhist monasteries compete with military outposts for prime mountaintop locations.
But early each morning, the convenience of the digital age arrives, by way of a plane carrying 15 to 20 bags of packages from Amazon. At an elevation of 11,562 feet, Leh is the highest spot in the world where the company offers speedy delivery.
When the plane arrives from New Delhi, it is met by employees from Amazon’s local delivery partner, Incredible Himalaya, who then shuttle the packages by van to a modest warehouse nearby. Eshay Rangdol, 26, the nephew of the owner, helps oversee the sorting of the packages and delivers many of them himself.
The couriers must follow exacting standards set by Amazon, from wearing closed toe shoes and being neatly groomed to displaying their ID cards and carrying a fully charged cell phone.
Amazon began offering doorstep delivery in this region last fall, as part of an effort to better serve the remotest corners of India. Sales volume in Leh is up twelve-fold since Incredible Himalaya took over deliveries from the postal service, which was much slower and required customers to pick up packages at the post office.
Rangdol and the other couriers get to the shoppers via motorcycle and scooter. When the snow is heavy in the winter, they will occasionally use a car. But two wheels are generally better than four to navigate Leh’s narrow, bumpy roads and dodge the ubiquitous cows.

Skalzing Dolma, a frequent Amazon customer, was Rangdol’s first stop on a recent day, receiving a delivery of bedsheets and eye shadow. Dolma has bought everything from clothing to kitchen appliances on Amazon and estimated that she has spent a total of Rs 1, 00,000 on the site. With few choices in Leh stores, cosmetics and clothing are popular categories for Amazon here.

Orders typically arrive in five to seven days, slower than the two-day delivery that Amazon’s big-city customers receive but quicker than the monthlong journey they often took with the post office.

Fortunately for Amazon, the local soldiers and monks are big customers. Thinley Odzer, a monk at the tiny Kartse Monastery, received a backpack. In the past, he has bought mobile phone cases and parts for his motorbike.

Amazon may never make money shipping products by air to customers in Leh. But the idea is that profits from dense urban areas like Mumbai and Delhi will subsidise service to more remote ones. “We want to make delivery convenient to where our customers are,” said Tim Collins, Amazon’s VP of global logistics. “Over time, the economics will work themselves out.”

PNB to close most operations in fraud-hit Mumbai branch: Report

HIGHLIGHTS
  • The 123-year-old bank has lost more than half its market value since the fraud came to light in late January
  • The move to downsize the Brady House branch comes as PNB seeks to tighten controls and restore its reputation

Punjab National Bank's Brady House branch in Mumbai. Punjab National Bank’s Brady House branch in Mumbai.

MUMBAI: Punjab National Bank (PNB) is closing nearly all its operations in a Mumbai branch that was at the heart of a $2 billion fraud, according to four sources with knowledge of the decision.
The move to downsize the Brady House branch, which has come to symbolise the biggest banking scandal in the country’s history, comes as India’s second-largest state lender seeks to tighten controls and restore its reputation.
The 123-year-old bank has lost more than half its market value since the fraud came to light in late January.
PNB will move all big client accounts out of the branch in downtown Mumbai that according to an internal investigation saw “exceptional growth” in the past few years largely because of its controversial dealings with firms owned by two related jewellers.
PNB has alleged that a handful of staff at the branch issued fake bank guarantees between 2011 and 2017 to help the firms of Indian diamond magnate Nirav Modi and his uncle Mehul Choksi raise billions of dollars in foreign credit. The duo have denied wrongdoing and are currently abroad.
Fronted by an imposing colonial facade, the branch has a foreign exchange department and handles mainly mid-sized corporate accounts. It also has a small retail operation, which will stay open after the restructuring, said the sources who declined to be named as the discussions were not public.
One of the sources with direct knowledge of the matter said that PNB was transferring some employees and big accounts – each involving annual transactions of more than Rs 50 crore ($7.28 million) – to large corporate branches for “better monitoring”.
“The bank has already started moving accounts to neighbouring branches,” said one of the sources. “Only a small retail banking operation will remain at the branch for the time being.”
The bank will consider similar steps for some other branches too so that risks are minimised, said one of the sources.
PNB Chief Executive Sunil Mehta did not respond to requests for comment on the Brady House plan. He said in a statement on Friday that the bank was on track to “bounce back within six months”.

Three of the sources said that more than two-dozen employees were informed this week about the decision to cut back the Brady House operations. The sources said the branch could eventually be shut down.

Business at the branch’s foreign exchange operations has come down “substantially” since the fraud came to light, said one of the sources.

PNB has mainly blamed a couple of Brady House employees for executing the fraud, but Reuters reported last month that a 162-page investigation report by the bank has found widespread risk control and monitoring lapses by 54 staff, many outside the branch.

Effect vs Affect What is the difference and use

Effect vs Affect

I am going to go on and assume you want the difference in definition Effect vs Affect

. Well let us take a word at a time.

Note: affect is a verb while effect is a noun.

Effect: From my point of view effect is something that describes a property/object of conversation which is the outcome of another property/object.

For example: we say “The effect of an electric field on an electron is so and so”.

or we use the term “heat effected zone” which is defined as the area which has been influenced due to heat.

So effect is basically the the result of some underlying cause.

Affect: It is usually used to describe the impact of something that has happened or something that may happen.

For example: Low iodine has affected the health of the people in this area.

Now to I know the head is reeling and in a way everything feels like one and the same, but to understand the difference let us try to use these interchangeably and see how the dialogue changes.

For Example:

  1. Using effect: The effect of an electric field causes the electron to move in the direction opposite to that of the field.
  2. Using affect: An electric field affects the electron in a way that it causes it to move opposite to the direction it’s own.

I hope this makes you understand how and where to use which word. Definition wise they seem more of less the same but when it comes to a language point of view, the context is important and depending on the context you use the respective word.

Effect vs Affect BSL English on Phone

As per Oxford dictionary,
Effect (noun) – Consequence of an action.
Usage: The failure had a miserable effect on his life.

Affect (verb) – To have an effect on.
Usage: The failure affected his life.
Effect is also used as a verb.
Effect (verb) – To cause something to happen, to bring about.
Usage: The failure effected misery in his life.

Here is a nice visual by Dictionary, Thesaurus, & Grammar for the same.

The difference between “affect” and “effect” and how to use each correctly begins with the former being a verb in most, though not all, instances and the latter being a noun in most, though not all, instances.

Because learning to use “affect” and “effect” correctly can be confusing and frustrating initially, what follows provides everything you will ever need to know about how to use both terms, along with an explanation of the slight variation in pronunciation when used a certain way.

Affect – verb — to influence, have an effect on, as in: “Hot weather affects unrefrigerated food by causing it to spoil.” To avoid confusing it with effect, remember that the “a” in affect stands for “action,” the purpose of verbs. Pronounce the “a” as in “adorable” and place the emphasis on the second syllable.

Affect – verb — to pretend or assume (a characteristic) artificially, as in “Her choice was to have all the actors affect Russian accents.” Pronounce as above. Term not used very often in this manner.

Affect – noun — one’s visible emotional demeanor, as in: “Though charged with murder, his affect lacked the fear and/or emotion such a situation triggers.” Pronounce the “a” as in adverb with emphasis on the first syllable.

  • “Though the man being interviewed was answering tough questions about traumatic events he’d experienced as a child, his affect was so inconsistent with that topic that it was if he were discussing the pleasure he finds in cooking.”
  • An interesting example of “affect” is illustrated by the demeanor and facial expression of Burke Ramsey, brother of murder victim JonBenet Ramsey, while he’s being interviewed by Dr. Phil McGraw for the “Dr. Phil” television show. Whether responding to questions about his father finding her body or the trauma of the police “interrogation” at age 9 or being hounded by the media, his unchanging “affect” is inconsistent with, and inappropriate for, the topics discussed in that a strange smile remains on his face as he answers questions about a traumatic and painful event in a rather flat, detached manner. Neither the viewers nor Dr. Phil know what he is feeling inside at that moment, if anything; we only see his “affect.”

Effect – noun — the result or consequence of some event or action, as in: “When the post-1966 education reforms failed, the devastating effect of all that failure was to leave us with a K-12 system that has remained inadequate for the last 50 years.”  Pronounce the “e” as in “every” and place the emphasis on the second syllable. To avoid confusing effect with affect, remember the ‘e’ is for any noun beginning with ‘e,’ such as eel or everyone.

Effect – verb — to bring about, as in: “The director appreciated the staff’s effort to effect change within their work environment.” Pronounce the “e” as in eel and place the emphasis on the second syllable.

  • Thus, to affect something is to act upon it or influence it in a manner that will effect certain changes which are significant enough to have a lasting effect on the thing affected.
  • The counselor’s intention was to positively affect the client’s tendency to hide behind his laughter so as to effect significant change in his affect. Then, when he leaves, he will feel the positive effects produced by being open and forthcoming, even though his affect continued to contradict the trauma he’d experienced.

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