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Direct and Indirect Speech- British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone | English Speaking course Spoken English course in Lucknow Kanpur Jhansi Delhi

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Direct and Indirect Speech- British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone

One of the best speaking course provided by BSL through English on Phone feature for Spoken English.

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What is Direct & Indirect Speech?
Direct Speech: the message of the speaker is conveyed or reported in his own actual words without any change.
Indirect Speech: the message of the speaker is conveyed or reported in our own words.
Example on Process of Conversion from Direct to Indirect Speech

  1. a)    Direct: Radha said, “I am very busy now.”
  2. b)    Indirect: Radha said that she was very busy then.
  3. All inverted commas or quotation marks are omitted and the sentence ends with a full stop.
  4. Conjunction ‘that’ is added before the indirect statement.
  5. The pronoun ‘I’ is changed to ‘she’. (The Pronoun is changed in Person)
  6. The verb ‘am’ is changed to ‘was’. (Present Tense is changed to Past)
  7. The adverb ‘now’ is changed to ‘then’.

Tips on Direct and Indirect Speech:
Tip 1: Conversion Rules as per the Reporting Verb
When the reporting or principal verb is in the Past Tense, all Present tenses of the direct are changed into the corresponding Past Tenses.

  1. a)    Direct: He said, “I am unwell.”
  2. b)    Indirect: Hesaid (that) he was 

If the reporting verb is in the Present or Future Tense, the tenses of the Direct Speech do not change.

  1. a)    Direct: Hesays/will say, “I am unwell.”
  2. b)    Indirect: Hesays/will say heis 

The Tense in Indirect Speech is NOT CHANGED if the words within the quotation marks talk of a universal truth or habitual action.

  1. a)    Direct: They said, “We cannot live without water.”
  2. b)    Indirect: They said that we cannot live without water.

Tip 2: Conversion Rules of Present Tense in Direct Speech
Simple Present Changes to Simple Past

  1. a)    Direct: “I amhappy”, she said.
  2. b)    Indirect: She said that she was 

Present Continuous Changes to Past Continuous

  1. a)    Direct: “I am reading a book”, he explained.
  2. b)    Indirect: He explained that he was reading a book.

Present Perfect Changes to Past Perfect

  1. a)    Direct: She said, “He has finished his food“.
  2. b)    Indirect: She said that he had finished his food.

Present Perfect Continuous Changes to Past Perfect Continuous

  1. a)    Direct: “I have been to Gujarat”, he told me.
  2. b)    Indirect: He told me that he had been to 

Tip 3: Conversion Rules of Past & Future Tense
Simple Past Changes to Past Perfect

  1. a)    Direct: He said, “Iraarrived on Monday.”
  2. b)    Indirect: He said that Ira had arrived on Monday.

Past Continuous Changes to Past Perfect Continuous

  1. a)    Direct: “We were living in Goa”, they told me.
  2. b)    Indirect: They told me that they had been living in Goa.

Future Changes to Present Conditional

  1. a)    Direct: He said, “I will be in Kolkata tomorrow.”
  2. b)    Indirect: He said that he would bein Kolkata the next day.

Future Continuous Changes to Conditional Continuous

  1. a)    Direct: She said, “I’ll be using the car next Friday.”
  2. b)    Indirect: She said that she would be using the car next Friday.

Tip 4: Changes in Modals
CAN changes into COULD

  1. a)    Direct: He said, “I can 
  2. b)    Indirect: He said that he could

MAY changes into MIGHT

  1. a)    Direct: He said, “Imay buy a house.”
  2. b)    Indirect: He said that he mightbuy a house.

MUST changes into HAD TO/WOULD HAVE TO

  1. a)    Direct: He said, “I mustwork hard.”
  2. b)    Indirect: He said that he had to work hard.

Modals that DO NOT Change: Would, Could, Might, Should, Ought to.

  1. a)    Direct: He said, “I should face the challenge.”
  2. b)    Indirect: He said that he shouldface the challenge.

Tip 5: Conversion of Interrogative
Reporting Verb like ‘said/ said to’ changes to asked, enquired or demanded

  1. a)    Direct: He said to me, “What are you doing?”
  2. b)    Indirect: He asked me what I was doing.

If sentence begins with auxiliary verb, the joining clause should be if or whether.

  1. a)    Direct: He said, “Willyou come for the meeting?”
  2. b)    Indirect: He asked them whether they would come for the meeting.

If sentence begins with ‘wh’ questions then no conjunction is used as the “question-word” itself act as joining clause.

  1. a)    Direct: Wheredo you live?” asked the girl.
  2. b)    Indirect: The girl enquired where I lived.

Tip 6: Command, Request, Exclamation, Wish
Commands and Requests
Indirect Speech is introduced by some verbs like ordered, requested, advised and suggested. Forbid(s)/ forbade is used for the negative sentences. The imperative mood is changed into the Infinitive.

  1. a)    Direct: Rafique said to Ahmed, “Go away.”
  2. b)    Indirect: Rafique ordered Ahmed to go 
  3. c)    Direct: He said to her, “Please wait.”
  4. d)    Indirect: He requestedher to wait.

Exclamations and Wishes
Indirect Speech is introduced by some words like grief, sorrow, happiness, applaud. Exclamatory sentence changes into assertive sentence and Interjections are removed.

  1. a)    Direct: He said, “Alas! I am undone.”
  2. b)    Indirect: He exclaimed sadly that he was broke.

Tip 7: Change of Pronouns
The first person of the reported speech changes according to the subject of reporting speech.

  1. a)    Direct: Shesaid, “I am in ninth class.”
  2. b)    Indirect: She says thatshe was in ninth class.

The second person of reported speech changes according to the object of reporting speech.

  1. a)    Direct: He says to them, “Youhave completed your
  2. b)    Indirect: He tells them that theyhave completed their 

The third person of the reported speech doesn’t change.

  1. a)    Direct: He says, “Sheis in tenth class.”
  2. b)    Indirect: He says that sheis in tenth class.

Tip 8: Change of Place and Time
Words expressing nearness in time or place in Direct Speech are generally changed into words expressing distance in Indirect Speech.
Now — then
Here — there
Ago — before
Thus — so
Today — that day
Tomorrow — the next day
This — that
Yesterday — the day before
These — those
Hither– thither
Come — go
Hence — thence
Next week/month — following week/month

  1. a)    Direct: She said, “My father came ”
  2. b)    Indirect: She said that her father had come the day before.
  3. c)    Direct: She says/will say, “My father came 

Indirect: She says/will say that her father had come yesterday(Here the reporting verb ‘says’ is in the present tense OR ‘will say’ is in future tense; hence the time expression ‘yesterday’ won’t change.)

Tip 9: Punctuation
The words that are actually spoken should be enclosed in quotes and begin with a capital letter
Example: He said, “You are right.”
Comma, full stop, question mark, or exclamation mark must be present at the end of reported sentences and are placed inside the closing inverted comma or commas.
Example: He asked, “Can I come with you?”
If direct speech comes after the information about who is speaking, comma is used to introduce the piece of speech, placed before the first inverted comma.
Example: She shouted, “Stop talking!”
Example: “Thinking back,” she said, “he didn’t expect to win.” (Comma is used to separate the two reported speech and no capital letter to begin the second sentence).

Tip 10: Conversion of Indirect to Direct Speech

  1. Use the reporting verb, “say” or “said to” in its correct tense.
  2. Remove the conjunctions “that, to, if or whether etc” wherever necessary.
  3. Insert quotation marks, question mark, exclamation and full stop, as per the mood of the sentence.
  4. Put a comma before the statement.
  5. Write the first word of the statement with capital letter.
  6. Change the past tense into present tense wherever the reporting verb is in the past tense.
  7. Convert the past perfect either into past tense or present perfect as found necessary.

Example

  1. a)    Indirect: Heasked whether he is coming.
  2. b)    Direct: He said to him, “Are you coming?”

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Spot the Errors:

Each of the following sentences will contain a mistake in the usage of Direct and Indirect Speech. See if you can spot that mistake.
#1:
Direct: The boy said, “I’m happy with my results.”
Indirect: The boy said that he is happy with his results. (Incorrect)
Indirect: The boy said that he was happy with his results. (Correct)
#2:
Direct: She said, “I have baked a cake.”
Indirect: She said (that) she baked a cake. (Incorrect)
Indirect: She said (that) she had baked a cake. (Correct)
#3:
Direct: He said, “All people have equal rights.”
Indirect: He said that all people had equal rights. (Incorrect)
Indirect: He said that all people have equal rights. (Correct)
#4:
Direct: Roshni said, “I may meet him here”.
Indirect: Roshni said that she may meet him here. (Incorrect)
Indirect: Roshni said that she might meet him there. (Correct)
#5:
Direct: She says, “I will go to school tomorrow.”
Indirect: She says that she would go to school the day after. (Incorrect)
Indirect: She says that she will go to school tomorrow. (Correct)
#6:
Direct: He said, “She is coming this week to discuss this.”
Indirect: He said that she was coming this week to discuss this. (Incorrect)
Indirect: He said that she was coming that week to discuss it. (Correct)
#7:
Direct: He said to them, “Will you come for dinner?”
Indirect: He said to them will they come for dinner? (Incorrect)
Indirect: He asked them whether they would come for dinner.(Correct)
#8:
Direct: The teacher said, “Be quiet and listen to my words.”
Indirect: The teacher said them to be quiet and listen to my words. (Incorrect)
Indirect: The teacher urged /ordered them to be quiet and listen to his words. (Correct)
#9:
Direct: The old man said, “Ah! I am ruined.”
Indirect: The old man said that Ah he was ruined! (Incorrect)
Indirect: The old man exclaimed with sorrow that he was ruined.
#10:
Indirect: The policeman enquired where we were going.
Direct: The policeman enquired where are you going. (Incorrect)
Direct: The policeman said, “Where are you going?” (Correct)
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CONJUNCTION – British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone | English Speaking course in Lucknow Kanpur Jhansi Delhi

CONJUNCTION – British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone

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The conjunction is the part of speech used as a “joiner” for words, phrases, or clauses in a particular sentence. It links these words or groups of words together, in such a way that certain relationships among these different parts of the sentence will be established, and the thoughts that all of these convey will be connected.
What are the Different Types of Conjunctions?
In the English language, conjunctions come in three basic types: the coordinating conjunctions, the subordinating conjunctions, and the correlative conjunctions.

  1. Coordinating Conjunction

Among the three types of conjunctions, this is probably the most common one. The main function of coordinating conjunctions is to join words, phrases, and clauses together, which are usually grammatically equal. Aside from that, this type of conjunctions is placed in between the words or groups of words that it links together, and not at the beginning or at the end.
Examples:

  • Pizza and burgers are my favorite snacks.

In the sample sentence above, the underlined word serves as a coordinating conjunction that links two words together (pizza + burgers).

  • The treasure was hidden in the cave or in the underground lagoon.

The example above shows how coordinating conjunctions can join together two (or more) phrases. The coordinating conjunction “or” in the sentence above links “in the cave” and “in the underground lagoon.”

  • What those girls say and what they actually do are completely different.

In this sentence, you’ll see how the same coordinating conjunction ”and” from the first sample sentence can be used to link clauses together (“what those girls say” and “what they actually do”), instead of just single words.
How to Punctuate Coordinating Conjunctions

  • In joining two words, phrases, or dependent clauses together, a comma is not required before the coordinating conjunction.Examples:
  • aliensand predators
  • by the beachor on the hill
  • what you see and what you get
  • If, on the other hand, you are linking more than two words, phrases, and dependent clauses together, a series of commas must be placed in between the distinct elements.

Examples:

  • spiderssnakes, and scorpions
  • in the bedroom, in the garage, orat the garden
  • Lastly, for joining together two independent clauses, a comma must be used before placing the coordinating conjunction.

Examples:

  • Cassandra fell asleep, so Joaquin just went home.
  • I don’t really like spaghetti, but I can eat lasagna any day.

For you to easily recall the different coordinating conjunctions that you can use, you can just remember the word “FANBOYS,” which stands for:

  1. Subordinating Conjunction

This type of conjunctions is used in linking two clauses together. Aside from the fact that they introduce a dependent clause, subordinating conjunctions also describe the relationship between the dependent clause and the independent clause in the sentence.
List of Common Subordinating Conjunctions:

  • while
  • as soon as
  • although
  • before
  • even if
  • because
  • no matter how
  • whether
  • wherever
  • when
  • until
  • after
  • as if
  • how
  • if
  • provided
  • in that
  • once
  • supposing
  • while
  • unless
  • in case
  • as far as
  • now that
  • as
  • so that
  • though
  • since

Sample Sentences:

  • It is so cold outside, so I brought you a jacket.
  • Because it is so cold outside, I brought you a jacket.

By looking at the sentences above, you will easily notice that a subordinating conjunction can be found either at the beginning of the sentence or between the clauses that it links together. Aside from that, a comma should also be placed in between the two clauses (independent clause and dependent clause) of the sentence.

  1. Correlative Conjunction

The correlative conjunctions are simply pairs of conjunctions which are used to join equal sentence elements together.
List of Common Correlative Conjunctions:

  • either… or
  • neither… nor
  • not only… but also
  • both… and
  • whether… or
  • so… as

Sample Sentences:

  • Both my brother and my father are lawyers.
  • I can’t decide whether I’ll take Chemical Engineering or take Medical Technology in college.

What is a Conjunctive Adverb?
Although a conjunctive adverb is not a real conjunction, this kind of words functions as conjunctions in a sentence. Some examples of conjunctive adverbs are:

  • in addition
  • for example
  • however
  • therefore
  • on the contrary
  • hence
  • in fact
  • otherwise
  • as a result
  • indeed still
  • thus
  • on the other hand
  • furthermore
  • instead
  • incidentally
  • after all
  • finally
  • likewise
  • meanwhile
  • consequently

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Interjections – British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone | English Speaking course in Lucknow Kanpur Jhansi Delhi

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Interjections – British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone

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What Is An Interjection?
An interjection is one of the eight major parts of speech, along with verbsnounspronounsadjectivesadverbsprepositions and conjunctions. Some grammarians believe that interjections are the least important part of speech. This is because interjections are not generally required in order for the meaning of a sentence to become clear.
An interjection is a word solely designed to convey emotion. It expresses meaning or feeling. It does not:

  • relate grammatically to the other parts of the sentence
  • help the reader understand the relationship between words and phrases in the sentence

Instead, it simply conveys to the reader the way the author is feeling. Interjections are rarely used in academic or formal writing, but are common in fiction or artistic writing. They are usually, but not always, offset by an exclamation point (which is also used to show emotion).
Use of Interjections
Beginning of Sentences
When people think of interjections, they commonly think of them being used at the beginning of the sentence. Many also associate interjections with a punctuation mark designed to convey emotion: the exclamation point.
This is often true. Interjections can and do appear in the beginning of sentences. For example:

  • “Yikes, I didn’t realize that there was a test on grammar today!”
  • “Oh no, I can’t believe that it is snowing here again!”

In both of these sentences the interjection – “yikes” and “oh no” appear at the beginning of the sentence. In addition, in both of the sentences, the emotion is a strong emotion and the sentence itself ends with an exclamation point.
Middle or End of Sentences
Interjections do not always have to be at the beginning of a sentence. They can appear in the middle, at the end, or anyplace else where the author wants to interject a bit of feeling and emotion.
For example, in the sentence “So, it’s snowing again, huh?” the interjection is found at the end. Here, the interjection is designed to express confusion (or perhaps dismay) at the continued snow falling. In this sentence, the emotion wasn’t an emotion that necessitated an exclamation point–instead, the interjection ‘huh’ turned the sentence into a question.
The sentence “In my opinion, my gosh, this is just the smartest thing you have ever said” the interjection is found in the middle. It designed to express or convey the author’s emphasis on his opinion that the statement was smart. Again, no exclamation point is required.
Stand-alone Sentence
An interjection can also be used by itself as a stand-alone sentence. For example, look at the two sentences: “Oh gosh! I can’t believe how late it is.” The interjection “oh gosh” is a stand-alone sentence. This is grammatically correct, although “Oh Gosh” does not contain a subject and action that is normally required for a complete thought to be expressed. The interjection–or the emotion felt–is the entire point of the sentence.
Types of Interjections
There are literally hundreds, if not thousands, of interjections in the English language. Most are designed to express strong emotions, such as love, hate, surprise, happiness, anger, enthusiasm, disgust, boredom, confusion or unhappiness. However, this is not always true. Some interjections can express either a mild emotion, or can be expressions, such as “Excuse me.”
A sample list of interjections includes words such as:

  • Aha
  • Boo
  • Crud
  • Dang
  • Eew
  • Gosh
  • Goodness
  • Ha
  • Oh
  • Oops
  • Oh no
  • Ouch
  • Rats
  • Shoot
  • Uh-oh
  • Uh-huh
  • Ugh
  • Yikes
  • Yuck

This is by no means an exhaustive list, but is representative of the types of interjections you may use on a daily basis. For more examples see Examples of Interjections.
Identifying Interjections
Now that you’ve looked at a list of interjections, practice identifying them in these ten sentences:

  1. Yowza! That is a fine looking car.
  2. Hurray! It is a snow day and school is cancelled.
  3. It is so exciting, my goodness, I just can’t believe it.
  4. Joe was late to school and yikes, the teacher was mad.
  5. Oh! I can’t believe how nice you look.
  6. Well, gee, that sure is a kind thing to say.
  7. Boo! I scared you.
  8. Woops, I dropped the milk and it spilled.
  9. Yay, it is finally Friday and the work week is over.
  10. Oh well, all good things must come to an end.

Answers to Identifying Interjections:

  1. Yowza! That is a fine looking car: Yowza is the interjection here. It is expressing the emotion of being quite impressed with the car.
  2. Hurray! It is a snow day and school is cancelled Hurray is the emotion here. Clearly, it is expressing happiness.
  3. It is so exciting, my goodness, I just can’t believe it. My goodness is the interjection here, expressing excitement.
  4. Joe was late to school and yikes, the teacher was mad. Yikes is the emotion being expressed here.
  5. Oh! I can’t believe how nice you look. Oh, the interjection, acts as a classic interjection at the beginning of a sentence. It is offset by its exclamation point.
  6. Well, gee, that sure is a kind thing to say. Here, we have two interjections: well and gee.
  7. Boo! I scared you. Boo is the rather obvious (and scary) interjection in this sentence.
  8. Woops, I dropped the milk and it spilled. Woops is the interjection used to express the error.
  9. Yay, it is finally Friday and the work week is over. Yay is another interjection that expresses the emotion of happiness, just as hurray did in sentence #2.
  10. Oh well, all good things must come to an end. Oh well is the emotion here, an interjection with a tinge of resignation.

Interjections in Writing
Interjections are not commonly used in formal or academic writing. Because of the function that interjections serve, there is virtually no place for them in an academic paper that is designed to convey facts. By definition, facts should be devoid of emotion or opinion such as the emotions conveyed by interjections.
Interjections are used most often in speech. While people don’t necessarily pause to think about it, they use interjections all the time. This is even more true when you consider the fact that common words used in pauses, such as “uh,” and “um” are interjections.
Interjections can find their way into fictional pieces, most often in the form of dialogue. They can also be used in informal written communication between two people, such as letters or emails.

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Verbs – British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone | English Speaking course in Lucknow Kanpur Jhansi Delhi

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Verbs-British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone

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Verbs
What is a verb?
A verb is one of the main parts of a sentence or question in English.
In fact, you can’t have a sentence or a question without a verb! That’s how important these “action” parts of speech are.
The verb signals an action, an occurrence, or a state of being. Whether mental, physical, or mechanical, verbs always express activity.

Physical Verbs – Definition and Examples

Physical verbs are action verbs. They describe specific physical actions. If you can create a motion with your body or use a tool to complete an action, the word you use to describe it is most likely a physical verb.

Physical Verb Examples

The physical verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.

  • Let’s runto the corner and back.
  • hearthe train coming.
  • Callme when you’re finished with class.

Mental Verbs – Definition and Examples

Mental verbs have meanings that are related to concepts such as discovering, understanding, thinking, or planning. In general, a mental verb refers to a cognitive state.

Mental Verb Examples

The mental verb examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.

  • knowthe answer.
  • She recognizedme from across the room.
  • Do you believeeverything people tell you?

States of Being Verbs – Definition and Examples

Also known as linking verbs, state of being verbs describe conditions or situations that exist. State of being verbs are inactive since no action is being performed. These verbs are usually complemented by adjectives.

States of Being Verb Examples

The state of being verbs in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification.

  • ama student.
  • We arecircus performers.
  • Please is

Types of Verbs

How many types of verbs are there? In addition to the main categories of physical verbs, mental verbs, and state of being verbs, there are several other types of verbs. In fact, there are more than ten different types of verbs that are grouped by function.

List of all Verb Types

Action Verbs
Action verbs express specific actions, and are used any time you want to show action or discuss someone doing something.
Transitive Verbs
Transitive verbs are action verbs that always express doable activities. These verbs always have direct objects, meaning someone or something receives the action of the verb.
Intransitive Verbs
Intransitive verbs are action verbs that always express doable activities. No direct object follows an intransitive verb.
Auxiliary Verbs
Auxiliary verbs are also known as helping verbs, and are used together with a main verb to show the verb’s tense or to form a question or negative.
Stative Verbs
Stative verbs can be recognized because they express a state rather than an action. They typically relate to thoughts, emotions, relationships, senses, states of being, and measurements.
Modal Verbs
Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are used to express abilities, possibilities, permissions, and obligations.
Phrasal Verbs
Phrasal verbs aren’t single words; instead, they are combinations of words that are used together to take on a different meaning to that of the original verb.
Irregular Verbs
Irregular verbs are those that don’t take on the regular spelling patterns of past simple and past participle verbs.

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ADJECTIVE-British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone

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ADJECTIVE-British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone

This is one of the Spoken English feature provided by BSL through English on Phone. English Speaking Course
What Are Adjectives?
Adjectives are words that describe the qualities or states of being of nouns: enormous, doglike, silly, yellow, fun, fast. They can also describe the quantity of nouns: many, few, millions, eleven.
Adjectives Modify Nouns
Most students learn that adjectives are words that modify (describe) nouns. Adjectives do not modify verbs or adverbs or other adjectives.
Margot wore a beautiful hat to the pie-eating contest.
Furry dogs may overheat in the summertime.
My cake should have sixteen candles.
The scariest villain of all time is Darth Vader.

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In the sentences above, the adjectives are easy to spot because they come immediately before the nouns they modify.
But adjectives can do more than just modify nouns. They can also act as a complement to linking verbs or the verb to be. A linking verb is a verb like to feel, to seem, or to taste that describes a state of being or a sensory experience.
That cow sure is happy.
It smells gross in the locker room.
Driving is faster than walking.
The technical term for an adjective used this way is predicate adjective.
Uses of Adjectives
Adjectives tell the reader how much—or how many—of something you’re talking about, which thing you want passed to you, or which kind of something you want.
Please use three white flowers in the arrangement.
Three and white are modifying flowers.
Often, when adjectives are used together, you should separate them with a comma or conjunction. See “Coordinate Adjectives” below for more detail.
I’m looking for a small, good-tempered dog to keep as a pet.
My new dog is small and good-tempered.

Degrees of Comparison
Adjectives come in three forms: absolute, comparative, and superlative. Absolute adjectives describe something in its own right.
cool guy
messy desk
mischievous cat
Garrulous squirrels
Comparative adjectives, unsurprisingly, make a comparison between two or more things. For most one-syllable adjectives, the comparative is formed by adding the suffix -er (or just -r if the adjective already ends with an e). For two-syllable adjectives ending in -y, replace -y with -ier. For multi-syllable adjectives, add the word more.
cooler guy
messier desk
more mischievous cat
More garrulous squirrels
Superlative adjectives indicate that something has the highest degree of the quality in question. One-syllable adjectives become superlatives by adding the suffix -est (or just -st for adjectives that already end in e). Two-syllable adjectives ending in -y replace -y with -iest. Multi-syllable adjectives add the word most. When you use an article with a superlative adjective, it will almost always be the definite article (the) rather than a or an. Using a superlative inherently indicates that you are talking about a specific item or items.
The coolest guy
The messiest desk
The most mischievous cat
The most garrulous squirrels
Coordinate Adjectives
Coordinate adjectives should be separated by a comma or the word and. Adjectives are said to be coordinate if they modify the same noun in a sentence.
This is going to be a long, cold winter.
Isobel’s dedicated and tireless efforts made all the difference.
But just the fact that two adjectives appear next to each other doesn’t automatically mean they are coordinate. Sometimes, an adjective and a noun form a single semantic unit, which is then modified by another adjective. In this case, the adjectives are not coordinate and should not be separated by a comma.
My cat, Goober, loves sleeping on this tattered woollen sweater.
No one could open the old silver locket.
In some cases, it’s pretty hard to decide whether two adjectives are coordinate or not. But there are a couple of ways you can test them. Try inserting the word and between the adjectives to see if the phrase still seems natural. In the first sentence, “this tattered and woollen sweater” doesn’t sound right because you really aren’t talking about a sweater that is both tattered and woollen. It’s a woollen sweater that is tatteredWoolen sweater forms a unit of meaning that is modified by tattered.
Another way to test for coordinate adjectives is to try switching the order of the adjectives and seeing if the phrase still works. In the second sentence, you wouldn’t say “No one could open the silver old locket.” You can’t reverse the order of the adjectives because silver locket is a unit that is modified by old.
Adjectives vs. Adverbs
As mentioned above, many of us learned in school that adjectives modify nouns and that adverbs modify verbs. But as we’ve seen, adjectives can also act as complements for linking verbs. This leads to a common type of error: incorrectly substituting an adverb in place of a predicate adjective. An example you’ve probably heard before is:
I feel badly about what happened.
Because “feel” is a verb, it seems to call for an adverb rather than an adjective. But “feel” isn’t just any verb; it’s a linking verb. An adverb would describe how you perform the action of feeling—an adjective describes what you feel. “I feel badly” means that you are bad at feeling things. If you’re trying to read Braille through thick leather gloves, then it might make sense for you to say “I feel badly.” But if you’re trying to say that you are experiencing negative emotions, “I feel bad” is the phrase you want.
It’s easier to see this distinction with a different linking verb. Consider the difference between these two sentences:
Goober smells badly.
Goober smells bad.
“Goober smells badly” means that Goober, the poor thing, has a weak sense of smell. “Goober smells bad” means Goober stinks—poor us.
When Nouns Become Adjectives and Adjectives Become Nouns
One more thing you should know about adjectives is that, sometimes, a word that is normally used as a noun can function as an adjective, depending on its placement. For example:
Never try to pet someone’s guide dog without asking permission first.
Guide is a noun. But in this sentence, it modifies dog. It works the other way, too. Some words that are normally adjectives can function as nouns:
Candice is working on a fundraiser to help the homeless.
In the context of this sentence, homeless is functioning as a noun. It can be hard to wrap your head around this if you think of adjectives and nouns only as particular classes of words. But the terms “adjective” and “noun” aren’t just about a word’s form—they’re also about its function.
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British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone

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Adverbs-British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone

 

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adverbs: uses

This is one of the Spoken English feature provided by BSL through English on Phone. Adverbs are one of the four major word classes, along with nouns, verbs and adjectives. We use adverbs to add more information about a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a clause or a whole sentence and, less commonly, about a noun phrase which is useful in spoken english.
Can you move it carefully? It’s fragile.
Quickly! We’re late.
She swims really well.
Don’t go so fast.
You have to turn it clockwise.
Come over here.
Actually, I don’t know her.
I haven’t seen them recently.
The bathroom’s upstairs on the left.

Adverbs: meanings and functions
Adverbs have many different meanings and functions. They are especially important for indicating the time, manner, place, degree and frequency of something.

timeI never get up early at the weekends.
mannerWalk across the road carefully!
placeWhen we got there, the tickets had sold out.
degreeIt’s rather cold, isn’t it?
frequencyI’m always losing my keys.

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NOUNS-British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone

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British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone

A noun is a part of speech that identifies a person, place, thing, or idea. In this lesson, in addition to learning how to identify nouns also through English on Phone, you’ll learn the difference between proper and common nouns and a bit about how nouns function in sentences which can help in the spoken english. We also provide English Speaking Course at BSL.
What Are Nouns?
You probably remember learning about nouns at some point, but you may be hard-pressed to explain what they are. Nouns are incredibly important in spoken and written language, but the good news is that they’re also pretty easy to understand. Figuring out the basics of how nouns operate in sentences will help you learn lots of other more complex rules down the road.
Definition of Nouns
A noun is a part of speech, and parts of speech simply refer to types of words. You may be familiar with a lot of basic parts of speech, like nouns, verbs, and adjectives. Nouns identify people, places, things, and ideas. Nouns can be categorized as either common or proper. Common nouns name general people, places, things, and ideas, while proper nouns name specific people, places, things, and ideas. For example, examples of nouns naming people would be:

Common NounProper Noun
presidentBarack Obama
teacherMrs. Sanders
brotherJoe

In our first column, we have general, or common, nouns. In our second column, we have specific, or proper, nouns. Note that typically, the first letter in a common noun isn’t capitalized unless that common noun is the first word in a sentence. The first letter in a proper noun is typically capitalized.
Nouns also identify places. Common nouns naming places include ‘hometown,’ ‘country,’ and ‘airport.’ Corresponding specific, proper nouns would include ‘Cincinnati,’ ‘Argentina,’ and ‘Hartsfield International Airport.’

Types of noun
There are several different types of noun, as follows:

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Common noun
A common noun is a noun that refers to people or things in general, e.g. boy, country, bridge, city, birth, day, happiness
Proper noun
A proper noun is a name that identifies a particular person, place, or thing, e.g. Steven, Africa, London, Monday. In written English, proper nouns begin with capital letters.

Concrete noun
A concrete noun is a noun which refers to people and to things that exist physically and can be seen, touched, smelled, heard, or tasted. Examples include dog, building, coffee, tree, rain, beach, tune.

Abstract noun
An abstract noun is a noun which refers to ideas, qualities, and conditions – things that cannot be seen or touched and things which have no physical reality, e.g. truth, danger, happiness, time, friendship, humour.

Collective nouns
Collective nouns refer to groups of people or things, e.g. audience, family, government, team, jury. In American English, most collective nouns are treated as singular, with a singular verb:

The whole family was at the table.

In British English, the preceding sentence would be correct, but it would also be correct to treat the collective noun as a plural, with a plural verb:

The whole family were at the table.

For more information about this, see matching verbs to collective nouns.

A noun may belong to more than one category. For example, happiness is both a common noun and an abstract noun, while Mount Everest is both a concrete noun and a proper noun.

Count and mass nouns
Nouns can be either countable or uncountable. Countable nouns (or count nouns) are those that refer to something that can be counted. Uncountable nouns (or mass nouns) do not typically refer to things that can be counted and so they do not regularly have a plural form.

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