Prepostition

Definition

A preposition connects the relationship between a noun, pronoun and phrase to other parts of the sentence. Whatever object or phrase the preposition is introducing is called the object of the preposition.

Each bold word in the following sentences are examples of prepositions:

 

  • The box is on the desk.
  • The box is under the desk.
  • The box is beside the desk.
  • He held the box over the desk.
  • He looked at the box during
  • The box is leaning against the desk.

In each sentence a preposition is used to locate the box in time or space. People use prepositions every day without even realizing it. Think of a preposition as a way to relate the object to the rest of the sentence.

Some Commonly Used Prepositions

aboutbeforedownofthroughout
abovebehindduringoffto
acrossbelowexceptontoward
afterbeneathforontounder
againstbesidefromoutunderneath
alongbetweeninoutsideuntil
amongbeyondinsideoverup
aroundbutintopastupon
asbylikesincewith
atdespitenearthroughWithout

Compound Prepositions

according toexcept forin response to
as well asin accordance within spite of
because ofin addition toinside of
by means ofin place ofinstead of
by way ofin relation toon account of

Object of the Preposition

The object of the preposition is always a noun, a pronoun or a noun equivalent.

 

Examples

 

  1. With poise, Gwyneth Paltrow walked to the stage and accepted her Academy Award. (The noun poise is the object of the preposition with.)

 

  1. The Palace welcomed the Prince of Monaco and scheduled a sightseeing tour for him. (The pronoun him is the object of the preposition for.)

 

  1. The director asked about proposing the summer programs for the University. (Proposing the summer programs for the University is a group of words functioning as noun or is a noun equivalent. It is the object of the preposition about.)

Prepositions Indicating Time

  • Use during to refer to a period of time.
  • Use since to refer to a period of time from the past to the present.
  • Use for to refer to a period of time stating the number of hours, days or weeks.
  • Use in to indicate year, before months not followed by the day or before the month and year without the day.
  • Use on before days of the week, before months followed by the day or before the time indicating the day, month and year.

Prepositions – Time

EnglishUsageExample
•                   on•                     days of the week•                     on Monday
•                   in•                      months / seasons

•                      time of day

•                      year

•                      after a certain period of time (when?)

•                     in August / in winter

•                     in the morning

•                     in 2006

•                     in an hour

•                   at•                      For night   

•                      for weekend

•                      a certain point of time (when?)

•                     at night

•                     at the weekend

•                     at half past nine

•                   since•                     from a certain point of time (past till now)•                     since 1980
•                   for•                     over a certain period of time (past till now)•                     for 2 years
•                   ago•                     a certain time in the past•                     2 years ago
•                   before•                     earlier than a certain point of time•                     before 2004
•                   to•                     telling the time•                     ten to six (5:50)
•                   past•                     telling the time•                     ten past six (6:10)
•            To / till / until•                 marking the beginning and end of a period of time•                    from Monday to/till Friday
•              Till / until•                  in the sense of how long something is going to last•                     He is on holiday until Friday.
•                   by•                      in the sense of at the latest

•                      up to a certain time

•                  I will be back by 6 o’clock.

•                     By 11 o’clock, I had read five pages.

Prepositions Indicating Place or Position

  • Use in when something is already inside.
  • Use in when the given location is more specific.
  • Use on in an address with only the name of the street.
  • Use between when you speak of two persons, places or things.
  • Use at when referring to places which indicate the general location.
  • Use among when you speak of three or more persons, places or things.
  • Use into when there is movement involved in the placement of something.

Prepositions – Place (Position and Direction)

EnglishUsageExample
•                   in•                     room, building, street, town, country

•                     book, paper etc.

•                     car, taxi

•                     picture, world

•                     in the kitchen, in London

•                     in the book

•                     in the car, in a taxi

•                     in the picture, in the world

•                   at•                      Meaning next to, by an object

•                      for table

•                      for events

•                   place where you are to do something typical

(watch a film, study, work)

•                     at the door, at the station

•                     at the table

•                     at a concert, at the party

•                     at the cinema, at school,

at work

•                   on•                      attached

•                      for a place with a river

•                      being on a surface

•                      for a certain side (left, right)

•                      for a floor in a house

•                      for public transport

•                      for television, radio

•                     the picture on the wall

•                     London lies on the Thames.

•                     on the table

•                     on the left

•                     on the first floor

•                     on the bus, on a plane

•                     on TV, on the radio

• by, next   to, beside•                     left or right of somebody or something•               Jane is standing by / next to /

beside the car.

under•                     on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else•                        the bag is under the table
below•                     lower than something else but above ground•                  the fish are below the surface
over•                      covered by something else

•                      meaning more than

•                      getting to the other side (also across)

•                      overcoming an obstacle

•                     put a jacket over your shirt

•                     over 16 years of age

•                     walk over the bridge

•                     climb over the wall

above•                        higher than something else, but not directly over it•                     a path above the lake
across•                      getting to the other side (also over)

•                      getting to the other side

•                     walk across the bridge

•                     swim across the lake

through•                  something with limits on top, bottom and the sides•                     drive through the tunnel
  through•                  something with limits on top, bottom and the sides•      drive through the tunnel
•                   to•              movement to person or building

•              movement to a place or country

•              for bed

•                      go to the cinema

•                      go to London / Ireland

•                      go to bed

•                   into•             enter a room / a building•                     go into the kitchen / the house
•                   towards•             movement in the direction of something

(but not directly to it)

•                go 5 steps towards the house
•                   onto•             movement to the top of something•                   jump onto the table
•                   from•              in the sense of where from•            a flower from the garden

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other important Prepositions

EnglishUsageExample
•                   from•                 who gave it•                     a present from Jane
•                   of•                 who/what does it belong to

•                 what does it show

•                     a page of the book

•                     the picture of a palace

•                   by•                 who made it•                     a book by Mark Twain
•                   on•                 walking or riding on horseback

•                 entering a public transport vehicle

•                     on foot, on horseback

•                     get on the bus

•                   in•                 entering a car / Taxi•                     get in the car
•                   off•                 leaving a public transport vehicle•                     get off the train
•                   out of•                 leaving a car / Taxi•                     get out of the taxi
•                   by•                 rise or fall of something

•                 travelling (other than walking or horse-riding)

•                     prices have risen by 10 percent

•                     by car, by bus

•                   at•                 For age•                     she learned Russian at 45
•                   about•                 for topics, meaning what about•                     we were talking about you

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This part of a speech basically refers to words that specify location or a location in time.

Examples of Prepositions: above, below, throughout, outside, before, near, and since

 

Sample Sentences:

 

  • Micah is hiding under the bed.

The italicized preposition introduces the prepositional phrase “under the bed,” and tells where Micah is hiding.

 

  • During the game, the audience never stopped cheering for their team.

Bahis Sektörü

The italicized preposition introduces the prepositional phrase “during the game,” and tells when the audience cheered.

Sentence correction: prepositions

 

  • Incorrect: He married with an Indian woman.
  • Correct: He married an Indian woman.

 

  • Incorrect: He accompanied with his friends.
    Correct:    He accompanied his friends.

 

  • Incorrect: We discussed on the matter.
    Correct:    We discussed the matter.

 

  • Incorrect: I pitied on him.
    Correct:    I pitied him.

 

  • Incorrect: He is clever, but he lacks of experience.
    Correct:    He is clever, but lacks experience.

 

Some verbs are normally followed by direct objects without prepositions. Examples are: discuss, enter, marry, lack, resemble, approach, accompany, pity etc.

 

  • Incorrect:This is a comfortable house to live.
  • Correct:This is a comfortable house to live in.

 

  • Incorrect:This is the road to go.
  • Correct:This is the road to go by.

 

  • Incorrect:He gave me a gun to shoot.
  • Correct:He gave me a gun to shoot with.

 

  • Incorrect:He gave me a chair to sit.
  • Correct:He gave me a chair to sit on.

 

Some infinitive complements take prepositions with them.

 

  • She needs other children to play with.

(NOT She needs other children to play.)

 

  • Incorrect: He asked a holiday.
  • Correct: He asked for a holiday.

 

  • Incorrect: Don’t ask me money.
  • Correct: Don’t ask me for

We use ask for to ask somebody to give something.

 

Ask without for is used to ask somebody to tell something.

 

  • Ask him his name. (NOT Ask him for his name.)
  • Ask for the menu. (NOT Ask the menu.)

Interjection

Definition

An interjection is a kind of exclamation inserted into regular speech. Actually, it is a brief and abrupt pause in speech for expressing emotions.

Interjections are unique and have some interesting features:

 

  • They are highly context-sensitive.
  • They usually cannot be modified or inflected.
  • They do not have to have a relation to the other parts of the sentence.
  • Interjections don’t have a grammatical function in the sentence construction.

 

In spoken language, interjections are the words we instantly use to show our reaction to something which influences our emotion. They are the initial reaction and sometimes do not even make sense. However, for formal speech or writing, using interjections is not appropriate.

 

Interjections mainly have four roles:

 

Rule 1: Interjections express sudden mood, emotions, and feeling with emphasis. There are also many taboo words that are usually used in everyday conversation but not in formal aspects. These words fall into the category of interjections.

 

  • Aw, I did not want him to come.
  • What? You never told me that!
  • Wow! That’s an amazing scene.

 

Rule 2: Some interjections interrupt a conversation or a thought or hold someone’s attention for a moment. These are just sounds, not words because these sounds do not make any sense.

Example:

 

  • Your, um, shirt has a stain on the back.
  • I want to, uh, ask you out on a date.

 

Rule 3: Some interjections express only yes or no.

 

 

Example:

 

  • Yes! I will most definitely do it.
  • Nah, we are not going.

Rule 4: Some interjections are used to get someone’s attention.

 

 

Example:

 

  • Yo, Alex! Get in the car!
  • Hey! Will you give me that ball?
  • Yoo-hoo! Is there anyone?

Interjection

 

This part of a speech refers to words which express emotions. Since interjections are commonly used to convey strong emotions, they are usually followed by an exclamation point.

Examples of Interjections:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sample Sentences

→ Ouch! That must have hurt.

                                  → Hurray, we won!

→ Hey! I said enough!

 

The bold words attached to the main sentences above are some examples of interjections.

 

  • Oh! I didn’t know that!”
  • Er, that is just aggravating.”
  • Mmm, that smells so good.”
  • Holy guano, Batman! The Joker is back in Gotham!”
  • Hey! I’m over here!”

 

Anytime you are writing dialog you can throw in interjections to help express what that character is feeling at that moment.

  • Wow! Holy guano! Hey! Oh., Good grief! No way! Well.
  • Mmmmmm, Ah, Er, Indeed, Yes, No.

 

Common Interjections

            A:        Hey! Have you ever seen the cartoon, The Simpsons?

            B:        Duh! Everyone has seen The Simpsons!

            A:        What does Homer Simpson say when he makes a mistake?

            B          He says “d’oh“!

D’oh is an example of an interjection. Homer says d’oh when he commits a mistake or something does not happen in the way he had planned.

Hey and Duh are also interjections. Hey is commonly used to attract attention:

  • Hey you! Be careful, there’s a car coming!

Duh is used in response to someone you think has made a foolish or stupid statement:

  • Where are glasses?
    Duh – you are already wearing them!

Brrr

Used to show you are feeling cold!

  • Brrr! It’s freezing in here. Turn the heater on.

Eek

Used to express fear or shock.

  • Eek! There’s a mouse in the kitchen!

            Geez

Used to show dissatisfaction, annoyance, mild surprise.

  • Geez! There’s no need to get angry with me, I was only asking a question.

Huh?

We say huh when we are confused or did not understand something.

  • Huh? What did he say? I didn’t understand anything he said.

Ouch

Ouch is used for something painful. We either hurt ourselves or we see someone get hurt.

  • Ouch! I just closed the door on my finger.

Oops

When you make a mistake or are clumsy, we say oops.

  • Oops! I just spilled coffee on the floor.

Phew

Phew is used most commonly used to express relief.

  • Phew! We managed to get on the train just before it left. I’m glad me didn’t miss it.

Well

Well like er, um and hmm can all be used when we are thinking about something.

  • Um…well, I think we should paint the wall red instead of purple.

Wow

Wow shows our surprise, amazement or great pleasure.

  • Wow! This cake tastes amazing.

Yuck

When we are disgusted by something, we say yuck.

  • Yuck! There’s hair in my soup!

Conjunction

Definition

An adverb is a part of speech used to describe a verb, adjective, clause, or another adverb. It simply tells the readers how, where, when, or the degree at which something was done.

 

For example:

 

  • The manager accepted the challenge very

The italicized word is an adverb that describes nicely, which is another adverb.

 

  • Tears began to fall as he saw the completely lifeless body of his wife.

The adverb in this sentence is completely, which describes the         adjective

lifeless.

  • Surprisingly, the cubicles of the public restroom are clean.

            Surprisingly is the adverb in this sentence. It modifies the clause that comes           right after it.

 

Even though all of the sample sentences above have one-word adverbs, adverbs    are not limited to a single word. Sometimes, adverbs come in phrases. Take a    look at the example below.

 

  • At 4 a.m., a stray cat jumped into the open window.

The italicized part is a prepositional phrase with an adverbial function. It tells        when the event occurred.

 

What are the Different Kinds of Adverb?

 

Aside from answering the main question “What is an adverb?” it is also important to explore the different kinds of this part of speech. Basically, there are four kinds of adverbs:

 

                                                                               

↓Time

 

→Manner    Adverbs               Degree←

Place↑

Adverbs of Manner

 

This kind of adverb describes the manner by which something was done or something happened. Adverbs of manner answer the question “How?”

Examples:

 

  • The students measured the volume of the chemicals accurately.

            The italicized adverb describes the verb “measured.”

 

  • She walks gracefully.

            Gracefully modifies the verb “walks.”

Adverbs of Place

 

Adverbs of place simply answer the question “Where?” Here are some examples:

 

Examples:

 

  • Heisenberg looked away from the dead body.

 

            The adverb away answers the question, “Where did Heisenberg look?”

 

  • They built a huge toy factory nearby.

 

            The adverb nearby answers the question, “Where did they build the huge toy      factory?”

 

            You will notice based on these examples that adverbs of place can be placed        right after the verb or after the object of the verb.

 

Adverbs of Time

 

Aside from answering when an event occurred, adverbs of time also answer questions like, “How long?” and “How often?”

 

Examples:

 

  • Syndra lived in Germany for a year.

 

            For a year tells how long something happened (how long Syndra lived in Germany).

 

  • I’m going to the dentist tomorrow.

 

The adverb tomorrow indicates when something will be done.

 

Adverbs of Degree

 

This kind of adverb indicates the degree at which something will be done. It tells something about the intensity.

 

Examples:

 

  • You didn’t try hard enough.

 

            Hard enough is an adverb pertaining to the verb, “try.”

 

  • The temperature of the room was extremely

 

            Extremely describes the adjective, “high.”

 

The Most Important Tips for Using Adverbs:

 

Sometimes, people know what adverbs are but don’t know how to use them properly. So here are the most useful tips that you should keep in mind:

 

  1. In writing an adverb of manner, you must never write the adverb in between the verb and the object of the verb.

Examples (from above):

 

  • The students measured accurately the volume of the chemicals. (wrong)
  • The students measured the volume of the chemicals accurately. (correct)

 

The first sentence is wrong because the adverb is located somewhere between      “measured” (verb) and “volume” (object of the verb).

 

  1. Know when to use the comparative or superlative forms of adverbs. Words like more or less are added to the main adverb when comparing two things. Most or least are used if there are three or more things to compare.

 

Examples

                       

  • most often; more frequently

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Just like adjectives, adverbs are also used to describe words, but the difference is that adverbs describe adjectives, verbs, or another adverb.

 

The different types of adverbs are:

 

  • Adverb of Manner– this refers to how something happens or how an action is done.

Example:

Annie danced gracefully.

The word “gracefully” tells how Annie danced.

 

  • Adverb of Time- this state “when” something happens or “when” it is done.

Example:

She came yesterday.

The italicized word tells when she “came.”

 

  • Adverb of Place– this tells something about “where” something happens or” where” something is done.

Example:

Of course, I looked everywhere!

The adverb “everywhere” tells where I “looked.”

 

  • Adverb of Degree– this state the intensity or the degree to which a specific thing happens or is done.

Example:

The child is very talented.

The italicized adverb answers the question, “To what degree is the child talented?”

Errors in the use of adverbs

 

Different kinds of adverbs go in different positions in a sentence. The usage is sometimes very different, too.

 

  • Incorrect: He plays tennis good.
  • Correct: He plays tennis well.

Good is an adjective. The adverb for this meaning is well.

 

  • Incorrect: I am very much sorry.
  • Correct: I am very sorry.

Very is used without much before adjectives and adverbs in the positive degree.

 

  • Incorrect: I am much tired.
  • Correct: I am very tired.

Much does not mean the same as very.

 

  • Incorrect: She is so poor to pay the dues.
  • Correct: She is too poor to pay the dues.
  • Incorrect: It is very hot to go out.
  • Correct: It is too hot to go out.

Note the structure too…to.

 

  • Incorrect: She carefully drove.
  • Correct: She drove carefully.

 

  • Incorrect: She angrily spoke.
  • Correct: She spoke angrily.

 

Adverbs of manner usually go in the end-position.

 

  • Incorrect: The room is enough spacious for us.
  • Correct: The room is spacious enough for us.

 

The adverb enough goes after the adjective or adverb it modifies.

 

  • Incorrect: I know to swim.
  • Correct: I know how to swim.

 

Know cannot be directly followed by an infinitive. Instead we use the structure   know how to.

 

  • Incorrect: He is not clever to solve the problem.
  • Correct: He is not clever enough to solve the problem.

 

  • Incorrect: He is now too strong to walk.
  • Correct: He is now strong enough to walk.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adverbials of manner

Adverbs of manner are usually formed from adjectives by adding –ly:

bad > badlyquiet > quietlysudden > suddenly

but sometimes there are changes in spelling:

easy > easilygentle > gentlycareful > carefully

The adverb formed from good is well:

  • You speak English very well.

Adverbs of manner normally come after the verb:

  • He spoke angrily.

or after the object:

  • He opened the door quietly.

If an adjective already ends in -ly, we use the phrase in a …. way to express manner:

  • silly: He behaved in a silly way.
  • friendly: She spoke in a friendly way.

A few adverbs of manner have the same form as the adjective:

  • They all worked hard.
  • She usually arrives late/early.
  • I hate driving fast.

 

                             Be Careful

hardly and lately have different meanings from hard and late:

He could hardly walk. = It was difficult for him to walk.
I haven’t seen John lately. = I haven’t seen John recently.

We often use phrases with like as adverbials of manner:

  • She slept like a baby.
  • He ran like a rabbit.

Adverbials of manner and link verbs

We very often use adverbials with like after link verbs:

  • Her hands feltlike ice.
  • It smellslike fresh bread.

 

                                               

 

                                                        Be Careful

We do not use adverbs of manner after link verbs. We use adjectives instead:

They looked happy. (NOT happily)
That bread smells delicious. (NOT deliciously)

Intensifiers and mitigators

Intensifiers

We use words like veryreally and extremely to make adverbs stronger:

  • She speaks English very
  • They behaved really
  • He put the glass down extremely

We call these words intensifiers. Other intensifiers are:

amazinglyexceptionallyincrediblyremarkablyparticularly

We also use enough to say more about an adverb, but enough comes after its adverb:

She didn’t win. She didn’t play well enough.

 

Mitigators

 

We use words like fairlyrather and quite to make adverbs less strong:

 

  • She speaks English fairly
  • They behaved rather
  • The children played quite

We call these words mitigators. Mitigators are the opposite of intensifiers.

Adverbials of place

Most adverbials of place are prepositional phrases:

  • They are in Franceat present.
  • Come and sit next to me.

But we also use adverbs:

abroaddownstairsnearbyoverseas
aheadherenext doorthere
awayindoorsout of doorsupstairs

 

  • They are abroadat present.
  • Come and sit here.

 

We use adverbials of place to describe location, direction and distance.

Location

We use adverbials to talk about where someone or something is:

  • He was standing by the table.
  • You’ll find it in the cupboard.
  • You’ll find it inside.
  • Sign your name here – at the bottom of the page.
  • Stand here.
  • They used to live nearby.

 

Direction

 

We use adverbials to talk about the direction in which someone or something is moving:

 

  • Walk past the bankand keep going to the end of the street.
  • It’s difficult to get into the carbecause the door is so small.
  • They always go abroad for their holidays.

 

Distance

 

We use adverbials to show how far things are:

 

  • Birmingham is 250 kilometresfrom London.
  • We live in Birmingham. London is 250 kilometres away.

We often have an adverbial of place at the end of a clause:

  • The door is very small, so the car is difficult to get into.
  • We’re in Birmingham. London is 250 kilometres away.
  • Our house is down a muddy lane, so it’s very difficult to get to.
  • Can I come in?

Adverbials of location

We use prepositions to talk about where someone or something is:

aboveamongatbehindbelowbeneath
besidebetweenbyinin betweeninside
nearnext toonoppositeoutsideover
roundthroughunderunderneath

 

  • He was standing by the table.
  • She lives in a village near Glasgow.
  • You’ll find it in the cupboard.

We use phrases with of as prepositions:

at the back ofat the top ofat the bottom ofat the end of
on top ofat the front ofin front ofin the middle of

 

  • There were some flowers in the middle of the table.
  • Sign your name here – at the bottom of the page.
  • I can’t see. You’re standing in front of me.

We can use right as an intensifier with some of these adverbials:

  • He was standing right next to the table.
  • There were some flowers rightin the middle of the table.
  • There’s a wood rightbehind our house.

We also use adverbs for location:

abroadhereindoorsupstairs
overseasthereoutdoorsdownstairs
awayroundout of doorshome
nearbyaroundnext door

 

  • Children love to play out of doors.
  • Did you see anybody there?
  • We have one-bedroom downstairs.
  • Don’t leave things lying around.

Adverbials of direction

We use prepositions to talk about direction:

acrossalongback back todowninto
ontoout of pastthroughtotowards

 

  • She ran out of the house.
  • Walk past the bankand keep going to the end of the street.

We use adverbs and adverb phrases for both location and direction:

everywhereabroadindoorsupstairshome
anywhereawayoutdoorsdownstairsback
somewherehereinsideupin
nowherethereoutsidedownout

 

  • I would love to see Paris. I’ve never been there(place)
  • We’re going to Paris. We flythere (direction)
  • The bedroom is upstairs(place)
  • He ran upstairsto the bedroom. (direction)

 

We often have adverbials of direction or location at the end of a clause:

  • This is the room we have our meals in.
  • Be careful you don’t let the cat out.
  • There were only a few people 

Adverbials of distance

We use prepositions to show how far things are:

  • Birmingham is 250 kilometres from 
  • Birmingham is 250 kilometres away from 
  • It is 250 kilometres from Birmingham to 

Sometimes we use an adverbial of distance at the end of a clause:

  • We were in London. Birmingham was 250 kilometres away.
  • Birmingham was 250 kilometres off.
  • London and Birmingham are 250 kilometres apart.

Adverbials of time

We use adverbials of time to describe:

 

  • whensomething happens:

 

  • I saw Mary yesterday.
  • She was born in 1978.
  • I will see you later.
  • There was a storm during the night.

 

  • We waited all day.
  • They have lived here since 2004.
  • We will be on holiday from 1 July until 3 August.
  • how often(frequency):
  • They usually watched television in the evening.
  • We sometimes went to work by car.

 

When (time and dates)

We use phrases with prepositions as time adverbials:

 

We use at with:

clock times:at seven o’clockat nine thirtyat fifteen hundred hours
mealtimes:at breakfastat lunchtimeat teatime
these phrases:at nightat the weekendat Christmasat Easter

 

  • We usein with:
seasons of the year:in (the) spring/summer/autumn/winter
years, centuries, decades:in 2009in 1998in the 20th centuryin the 60sin the 1980s
months:in January/February/March etc.
parts of the day:in the morningin the afternoonin the evening
  • We useon with:
days:on Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday etc.on Christmas dayon my birthday
dates:on the thirty-first of Julyon June the fifteenth

 

Be Careful

 

We say at night when we are talking about all of the night:

 

·          When there is no moon, it is very dark at night.

·          He sleeps during the day and works at night.

 

but we say in the night when we are talking about a specific time during the night:

 

·          He woke up twice in the night.

·          I heard a funny noise in the night.

 

We often use a noun phrase as a time adverbial:

yesterdaytodaytomorrow
last week/month/yearthis week/month/yearnext week/month/year
last Saturdaythis Tuesdaynext Friday
the day before yesterdaythe day after tomorrow
one day/week/month
the other day/week/month

We can put time phrases together:

  • We will meet next weekat six o’clock on Monday.
  • I heard a funny noise at about eleven o’clocklast night.
  • It happened last week at seven o’clock on Monday night.

We use ago with the past simple to say how long before the time of speaking something happened:

  • I saw Jim aboutthree weeks ago.
  • We arrived a few minutes ago.

We use in with a future form to say how long after the time of speaking something will happen:

  • I’ll see youin a month.
  • Our train’s leaving in five minutes.

How long

We use for to say how long:

  • We have been waiting for twenty minutes.
  • They lived in Manchester for fifteen years.

We can also use a noun phrase without for:

  • Let’s go. We’ve been waiting nearly an hour.
  • I’ve worked here twenty years.

We use since with the present perfect or the past perfect to say when something started:

  • I have worked here since December.
  • They had been watching since seven o’clock in the morning.

We use from … to/until to say when something starts and finishes:

  • They stayed with us from Monday to Friday.
  • We will be on holiday from the sixteenth until the twentieth.

 

                                                                Be Careful

 

We can use to or until with a noun phrase:

 

·          My great-grandmother lived in Liverpool from 1940 to her death.

·          My great-grandmother lived in Liverpool from 1940 until her death.

 

But we can only use until with a clause:

 

·          My great-grandmother lived in Liverpool from 1940 to she died.

·          My great-grandmother lived in Liverpool from 1940 until she died.

How often

The commonest adverbials of frequency are:

alwaysnevernormally
rarelyseldomsometimes
occasionallyoftenusually

We usually put these one-word adverbials of frequency in front of the main verb:

  • We often spendChristmas with friends.
  • I have never enjoyedmyself so much.

 

but they usually come after the verb be:

  • He wasalways tired in the evening.
  • We are never late for work.

Sometimes these adverbials have an intensifier or mitigator:

  • He is veryrarely late for work.
  • We nearlyalways spend Christmas with friends.

We use the adverbial a lot to mean often or frequently. It comes at the end of the clause:

  • We go to the cinema a lot.

We can also use a lot with another time adverbial:

  • We go to the cinema a lotat the weekend.

We use much/a lot with a negative to mean not often:

  • We don’tgo out much/a lot. (= We don’t go out often.)

We often use phrases with every as adverbials of frequency. We use every with words like minute, hour, day, week, month and year:

  • There is a big celebration every year.
  • We have a meeting twice every week.
  • I usually go home once every two months.
  • There is a leap year every four years.

We also use every with days of the week and months of the year:

  • We have a meeting every Monday.
  • We go on holiday every August.

We use the phrase every other:

  • We will email you every other day(= on alternate days)
  • We go to see my mother every other week(= in alternate weeks)

We use phrases with once, twice, three times, four times, etc. and a period of time:

  • I go swimming twice a week.
  • I see my old school friends four or five times a year.

 

We use how often and ever to ask questions about frequencyhow often comes at the beginning of the clause:

  • How oftendo you go to the cinema?
  • How oftenhave you been here?

ever comes before the main verb:

  • Do you evergo to the cinema at the weekend?
  • Have you everbeen there?

 

 

 

‘still’ and ‘no longer’, ‘already’ and ‘yet’

still

We use still to show that something continues up to a time in the past, present or future. It goes in front of the main verb:

  • Even when my father was 65, he still enjoyedplaying tennis.
  • It’s past midnight but she’s still doingher homework.
  • I won’t be at work next week. We’ll still beon holiday.

or after the present simple or past simple of be:

  • Her grandfather has been very ill, but he isstill
  • We tried to help them, but they werestill

 

no longer

We use no longer to show the idea of something stopping in the past, present or future. It goes in front of the main verb:

  • At that moment, I realised that I no longerloved
  • We no longerlive in England. We’ve moved to France.
  • From midnight tonight, Mr Jones will no longer bethe president.

or after the present simple or past simple of be:

  • Sadly, Andrew and Bradley areno longer  They had an argument.
  • It wasno longer safe to stay in the country. We had to leave immediately.

In a negative sentence, we use any longer or any more. It goes at the end of the sentence:

  • We don’t live in England any longer.
  • It wasn’tsafe to stay in the country any more.

already

We use already to show that something has happened sooner than it was expected to happen. It goes in front of the main verb:

  • The car is OK. I’ve alreadyfixed
  • It was early but they were alreadysleeping.

or after the present simple or past simple of be:

  • It was early but we werealready
  • We arealready

Sometimes already comes at the end of the sentence for emphasis:

  • It’s very early but they are sleeping already.
  • It was early but we were tired already.
  • When we got there, most people had arrived already.

 

yet

We use yet in a negative or interrogative clause, usually with perfective aspect (especially in British English), to show that something has not happened by a particular timeyet comes at the end of a sentence:

  • It was late, but they hadn’t arrived yet.
  • Have you fixed the car yet?
  • She won’t have sent the email yet.

Adverbials of probability

We use adverbials of probability to show how certain we are about something. The commonest adverbials of probability are:

certainlydefinitelymaybepossibly
clearlyobviously perhapsprobably

maybe and perhaps usually come at the beginning of the clause:

  • Perhaps the weather will be fine.
  • Maybe it won’t rain.

Other adverbs of possibility usually come in front of the main verb:

  • He is certainly comingto the party.
  • Will they definitelybe there?
  • We will possiblycome to England next year.

or after the present simple or past simple of be:

  • They aredefinitely at home.
  • She wasobviously very surprised.

But these adverbs sometimes come at the beginning of a clause for emphasis:

  • Obviously,she was very surprised.
  • Possibly we will come to England next year.

 

Comparative and superlative adverbs

Comparative adverbs

 

We can use comparative adverbs to show change or make comparisons:

 

  • I forget things more often
  • She began to speak more quickly.
  • They are working harder 

We often use than with comparative adverbs:

  • I forget things more often than I used to.
  • Girls usually work harder than 

We use these words and phrases as intensifiers with comparatives:

muchfara lotquite a lot
a great deala good deala good bita fair bit

I forget things much more often nowadays.

We use these words and phrases as mitigators:

a bit slightlyrather
a littlea little bitjust a little bit

She began to speak a bit more quickly.

Superlative adverbs

 

We can use superlative adverbs to make comparisons:

  • His ankles hurt badly, but his knees hurt worst.
  • It rainsmost often at the beginning of the year.

We use these words and phrases as intensifiers with superlatives:

easilyby farmuch

When we intensify a superlative adverb, we often put the in front of the adverb:

  • In our office, Jill worksby far the hardest.
  • Of the three brothers, Brianeasily runs the fastest.

 

How to form comparative and superlative adverbs

We make comparative and superlative adverbs using the same rules as for comparative and superlative adjectives. For example:

One syllable: Jill works fast.>faster>fastest
One syllable ending in –e: They arrived late.>later>latest
Two or more syllables: Alan finished the test quickly.>more quickly>most quickly
wellShe speaks English well.>better>best
badlyShe speaks German badly.>worse>worst
farHe’ll go far.>farther/further>farthest/furthest

 

Adverb

Definition

An adverb is a part of speech used to describe a verb, adjective, clause, or another adverb. It simply tells the readers how, where, when, or the degree at which something was done.

 

For example:

 

  • The manager accepted the challenge very

The italicized word is an adverb that describes nicely, which is another adverb.

 

  • Tears began to fall as he saw the completely lifeless body of his wife.

The adverb in this sentence is completely, which describes the         adjective

lifeless.

  • Surprisingly, the cubicles of the public restroom are clean.

            Surprisingly is the adverb in this sentence. It modifies the clause that comes           right after it.

 

Even though all of the sample sentences above have one-word adverbs, adverbs    are not limited to a single word. Sometimes, adverbs come in phrases. Take a    look at the example below.

 

  • At 4 a.m., a stray cat jumped into the open window.

The italicized part is a prepositional phrase with an adverbial function. It tells        when the event occurred.

 

What are the Different Kinds of Adverb?

 

Aside from answering the main question “What is an adverb?” it is also important to explore the different kinds of this part of speech. Basically, there are four kinds of adverbs:

 

                                                                               

↓Time

 

→Manner    Adverbs               Degree←

Place↑

Adverbs of Manner

 

This kind of adverb describes the manner by which something was done or something happened. Adverbs of manner answer the question “How?”

Examples:

 

  • The students measured the volume of the chemicals accurately.

            The italicized adverb describes the verb “measured.”

 

  • She walks gracefully.

            Gracefully modifies the verb “walks.”

Adverbs of Place

 

Adverbs of place simply answer the question “Where?” Here are some examples:

 

Examples:

 

  • Heisenberg looked away from the dead body.

 

            The adverb away answers the question, “Where did Heisenberg look?”

 

  • They built a huge toy factory nearby.

 

            The adverb nearby answers the question, “Where did they build the huge toy      factory?”

 

            You will notice based on these examples that adverbs of place can be placed        right after the verb or after the object of the verb.

 

Adverbs of Time

 

Aside from answering when an event occurred, adverbs of time also answer questions like, “How long?” and “How often?”

 

Examples:

 

  • Syndra lived in Germany for a year.

 

            For a year tells how long something happened (how long Syndra lived in Germany).

 

  • I’m going to the dentist tomorrow.

 

The adverb tomorrow indicates when something will be done.

 

Adverbs of Degree

 

This kind of adverb indicates the degree at which something will be done. It tells something about the intensity.

 

Examples:

 

  • You didn’t try hard enough.

 

            Hard enough is an adverb pertaining to the verb, “try.”

 

  • The temperature of the room was extremely

 

            Extremely describes the adjective, “high.”

 

The Most Important Tips for Using Adverbs:

 

Sometimes, people know what adverbs are but don’t know how to use them properly. So here are the most useful tips that you should keep in mind:

 

  1. In writing an adverb of manner, you must never write the adverb in between the verb and the object of the verb.

Examples (from above):

 

  • The students measured accurately the volume of the chemicals. (wrong)
  • The students measured the volume of the chemicals accurately. (correct)

 

The first sentence is wrong because the adverb is located somewhere between      “measured” (verb) and “volume” (object of the verb).

 

  1. Know when to use the comparative or superlative forms of adverbs. Words like more or less are added to the main adverb when comparing two things. Most or least are used if there are three or more things to compare.

 

Examples

                       

  • most often; more frequently

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Just like adjectives, adverbs are also used to describe words, but the difference is that adverbs describe adjectives, verbs, or another adverb.

 

The different types of adverbs are:

 

  • Adverb of Manner– this refers to how something happens or how an action is done.

Example:

Annie danced gracefully.

The word “gracefully” tells how Annie danced.

 

  • Adverb of Time- this state “when” something happens or “when” it is done.

Example:

She came yesterday.

The italicized word tells when she “came.”

 

  • Adverb of Place– this tells something about “where” something happens or” where” something is done.

Example:

Of course, I looked everywhere!

The adverb “everywhere” tells where I “looked.”

 

  • Adverb of Degree– this state the intensity or the degree to which a specific thing happens or is done.

Example:

The child is very talented.

The italicized adverb answers the question, “To what degree is the child talented?”

Errors in the use of adverbs

 

Different kinds of adverbs go in different positions in a sentence. The usage is sometimes very different, too.

 

  • Incorrect: He plays tennis good.
  • Correct: He plays tennis well.

Good is an adjective. The adverb for this meaning is well.

 

  • Incorrect: I am very much sorry.
  • Correct: I am very sorry.

Very is used without much before adjectives and adverbs in the positive degree.

 

  • Incorrect: I am much tired.
  • Correct: I am very tired.

Much does not mean the same as very.

 

  • Incorrect: She is so poor to pay the dues.
  • Correct: She is too poor to pay the dues.
  • Incorrect: It is very hot to go out.
  • Correct: It is too hot to go out.

Note the structure too…to.

 

  • Incorrect: She carefully drove.
  • Correct: She drove carefully.

 

  • Incorrect: She angrily spoke.
  • Correct: She spoke angrily.

 

Adverbs of manner usually go in the end-position.

 

  • Incorrect: The room is enough spacious for us.
  • Correct: The room is spacious enough for us.

 

The adverb enough goes after the adjective or adverb it modifies.

 

  • Incorrect: I know to swim.
  • Correct: I know how to swim.

 

Know cannot be directly followed by an infinitive. Instead we use the structure   know how to.

 

  • Incorrect: He is not clever to solve the problem.
  • Correct: He is not clever enough to solve the problem.

 

  • Incorrect: He is now too strong to walk.
  • Correct: He is now strong enough to walk.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adverbials of manner

Adverbs of manner are usually formed from adjectives by adding –ly:

bad > badlyquiet > quietlysudden > suddenly

but sometimes there are changes in spelling:

easy > easilygentle > gentlycareful > carefully

The adverb formed from good is well:

  • You speak English very well.

Adverbs of manner normally come after the verb:

  • He spoke angrily.

or after the object:

  • He opened the door quietly.

If an adjective already ends in -ly, we use the phrase in a …. way to express manner:

  • silly: He behaved in a silly way.
  • friendly: She spoke in a friendly way.

A few adverbs of manner have the same form as the adjective:

  • They all worked hard.
  • She usually arrives late/early.
  • I hate driving fast.

 

                             Be Careful

hardly and lately have different meanings from hard and late:

He could hardly walk. = It was difficult for him to walk.
I haven’t seen John lately. = I haven’t seen John recently.

We often use phrases with like as adverbials of manner:

  • She slept like a baby.
  • He ran like a rabbit.

Adverbials of manner and link verbs

We very often use adverbials with like after link verbs:

  • Her hands feltlike ice.
  • It smellslike fresh bread.

 

                                               

 

                                                        Be Careful

We do not use adverbs of manner after link verbs. We use adjectives instead:

They looked happy. (NOT happily)
That bread smells delicious. (NOT deliciously)

Intensifiers and mitigators

Intensifiers

We use words like veryreally and extremely to make adverbs stronger:

  • She speaks English very
  • They behaved really
  • He put the glass down extremely

We call these words intensifiers. Other intensifiers are:

amazinglyexceptionallyincrediblyremarkablyparticularly

We also use enough to say more about an adverb, but enough comes after its adverb:

She didn’t win. She didn’t play well enough.

 

Mitigators

 

We use words like fairlyrather and quite to make adverbs less strong:

 

  • She speaks English fairly
  • They behaved rather
  • The children played quite

We call these words mitigators. Mitigators are the opposite of intensifiers.

Adverbials of place

Most adverbials of place are prepositional phrases:

  • They are in Franceat present.
  • Come and sit next to me.

But we also use adverbs:

abroaddownstairsnearbyoverseas
aheadherenext doorthere
awayindoorsout of doorsupstairs

 

  • They are abroadat present.
  • Come and sit here.

 

We use adverbials of place to describe location, direction and distance.

Location

We use adverbials to talk about where someone or something is:

  • He was standing by the table.
  • You’ll find it in the cupboard.
  • You’ll find it inside.
  • Sign your name here – at the bottom of the page.
  • Stand here.
  • They used to live nearby.

 

Direction

 

We use adverbials to talk about the direction in which someone or something is moving:

 

  • Walk past the bankand keep going to the end of the street.
  • It’s difficult to get into the carbecause the door is so small.
  • They always go abroad for their holidays.

 

Distance

 

We use adverbials to show how far things are:

 

  • Birmingham is 250 kilometresfrom London.
  • We live in Birmingham. London is 250 kilometres away.

We often have an adverbial of place at the end of a clause:

  • The door is very small, so the car is difficult to get into.
  • We’re in Birmingham. London is 250 kilometres away.
  • Our house is down a muddy lane, so it’s very difficult to get to.
  • Can I come in?

Adverbials of location

We use prepositions to talk about where someone or something is:

aboveamongatbehindbelowbeneath
besidebetweenbyinin betweeninside
nearnext toonoppositeoutsideover
roundthroughunderunderneath

 

  • He was standing by the table.
  • She lives in a village near Glasgow.
  • You’ll find it in the cupboard.

We use phrases with of as prepositions:

at the back ofat the top ofat the bottom ofat the end of
on top ofat the front ofin front ofin the middle of

 

  • There were some flowers in the middle of the table.
  • Sign your name here – at the bottom of the page.
  • I can’t see. You’re standing in front of me.

We can use right as an intensifier with some of these adverbials:

  • He was standing right next to the table.
  • There were some flowers rightin the middle of the table.
  • There’s a wood rightbehind our house.

We also use adverbs for location:

abroadhereindoorsupstairs
overseasthereoutdoorsdownstairs
awayroundout of doorshome
nearbyaroundnext door

 

  • Children love to play out of doors.
  • Did you see anybody there?
  • We have one-bedroom downstairs.
  • Don’t leave things lying around.

Adverbials of direction

We use prepositions to talk about direction:

acrossalongback back todowninto
ontoout of pastthroughtotowards

 

  • She ran out of the house.
  • Walk past the bankand keep going to the end of the street.

We use adverbs and adverb phrases for both location and direction:

everywhereabroadindoorsupstairshome
anywhereawayoutdoorsdownstairsback
somewherehereinsideupin
nowherethereoutsidedownout

 

  • I would love to see Paris. I’ve never been there(place)
  • We’re going to Paris. We flythere (direction)
  • The bedroom is upstairs(place)
  • He ran upstairsto the bedroom. (direction)

 

We often have adverbials of direction or location at the end of a clause:

  • This is the room we have our meals in.
  • Be careful you don’t let the cat out.
  • There were only a few people 

Adverbials of distance

We use prepositions to show how far things are:

  • Birmingham is 250 kilometres from 
  • Birmingham is 250 kilometres away from 
  • It is 250 kilometres from Birmingham to 

Sometimes we use an adverbial of distance at the end of a clause:

  • We were in London. Birmingham was 250 kilometres away.
  • Birmingham was 250 kilometres off.
  • London and Birmingham are 250 kilometres apart.

Adverbials of time

We use adverbials of time to describe:

 

  • whensomething happens:

 

  • I saw Mary yesterday.
  • She was born in 1978.
  • I will see you later.
  • There was a storm during the night.

 

  • We waited all day.
  • They have lived here since 2004.
  • We will be on holiday from 1 July until 3 August.
  • how often(frequency):
  • They usually watched television in the evening.
  • We sometimes went to work by car.

 

When (time and dates)

We use phrases with prepositions as time adverbials:

 

We use at with:

clock times:at seven o’clockat nine thirtyat fifteen hundred hours
mealtimes:at breakfastat lunchtimeat teatime
these phrases:at nightat the weekendat Christmasat Easter

 

  • We usein with:
seasons of the year:in (the) spring/summer/autumn/winter
years, centuries, decades:in 2009in 1998in the 20th centuryin the 60sin the 1980s
months:in January/February/March etc.
parts of the day:in the morningin the afternoonin the evening
  • We useon with:
days:on Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday etc.on Christmas dayon my birthday
dates:on the thirty-first of Julyon June the fifteenth

 

Be Careful

 

We say at night when we are talking about all of the night:

 

·          When there is no moon, it is very dark at night.

·          He sleeps during the day and works at night.

 

but we say in the night when we are talking about a specific time during the night:

 

·          He woke up twice in the night.

·          I heard a funny noise in the night.

 

We often use a noun phrase as a time adverbial:

yesterdaytodaytomorrow
last week/month/yearthis week/month/yearnext week/month/year
last Saturdaythis Tuesdaynext Friday
the day before yesterdaythe day after tomorrow
one day/week/month
the other day/week/month

We can put time phrases together:

  • We will meet next weekat six o’clock on Monday.
  • I heard a funny noise at about eleven o’clocklast night.
  • It happened last week at seven o’clock on Monday night.

We use ago with the past simple to say how long before the time of speaking something happened:

  • I saw Jim aboutthree weeks ago.
  • We arrived a few minutes ago.

We use in with a future form to say how long after the time of speaking something will happen:

  • I’ll see youin a month.
  • Our train’s leaving in five minutes.

How long

We use for to say how long:

  • We have been waiting for twenty minutes.
  • They lived in Manchester for fifteen years.

We can also use a noun phrase without for:

  • Let’s go. We’ve been waiting nearly an hour.
  • I’ve worked here twenty years.

We use since with the present perfect or the past perfect to say when something started:

  • I have worked here since December.
  • They had been watching since seven o’clock in the morning.

We use from … to/until to say when something starts and finishes:

  • They stayed with us from Monday to Friday.
  • We will be on holiday from the sixteenth until the twentieth.

 

                                                                Be Careful

 

We can use to or until with a noun phrase:

 

·          My great-grandmother lived in Liverpool from 1940 to her death.

·          My great-grandmother lived in Liverpool from 1940 until her death.

 

But we can only use until with a clause:

 

·          My great-grandmother lived in Liverpool from 1940 to she died.

·          My great-grandmother lived in Liverpool from 1940 until she died.

How often

The commonest adverbials of frequency are:

alwaysnevernormally
rarelyseldomsometimes
occasionallyoftenusually

We usually put these one-word adverbials of frequency in front of the main verb:

  • We often spendChristmas with friends.
  • I have never enjoyedmyself so much.

 

but they usually come after the verb be:

  • He wasalways tired in the evening.
  • We are never late for work.

Sometimes these adverbials have an intensifier or mitigator:

  • He is veryrarely late for work.
  • We nearlyalways spend Christmas with friends.

We use the adverbial a lot to mean often or frequently. It comes at the end of the clause:

  • We go to the cinema a lot.

We can also use a lot with another time adverbial:

  • We go to the cinema a lotat the weekend.

We use much/a lot with a negative to mean not often:

  • We don’tgo out much/a lot. (= We don’t go out often.)

We often use phrases with every as adverbials of frequency. We use every with words like minute, hour, day, week, month and year:

  • There is a big celebration every year.
  • We have a meeting twice every week.
  • I usually go home once every two months.
  • There is a leap year every four years.

We also use every with days of the week and months of the year:

  • We have a meeting every Monday.
  • We go on holiday every August.

We use the phrase every other:

  • We will email you every other day(= on alternate days)
  • We go to see my mother every other week(= in alternate weeks)

We use phrases with once, twice, three times, four times, etc. and a period of time:

  • I go swimming twice a week.
  • I see my old school friends four or five times a year.

 

We use how often and ever to ask questions about frequencyhow often comes at the beginning of the clause:

  • How oftendo you go to the cinema?
  • How oftenhave you been here?

ever comes before the main verb:

  • Do you evergo to the cinema at the weekend?
  • Have you everbeen there?

 

 

 

‘still’ and ‘no longer’, ‘already’ and ‘yet’

still

We use still to show that something continues up to a time in the past, present or future. It goes in front of the main verb:

  • Even when my father was 65, he still enjoyedplaying tennis.
  • It’s past midnight but she’s still doingher homework.
  • I won’t be at work next week. We’ll still beon holiday.

or after the present simple or past simple of be:

  • Her grandfather has been very ill, but he isstill
  • We tried to help them, but they werestill

 

no longer

We use no longer to show the idea of something stopping in the past, present or future. It goes in front of the main verb:

  • At that moment, I realised that I no longerloved
  • We no longerlive in England. We’ve moved to France.
  • From midnight tonight, Mr Jones will no longer bethe president.

or after the present simple or past simple of be:

  • Sadly, Andrew and Bradley areno longer  They had an argument.
  • It wasno longer safe to stay in the country. We had to leave immediately.

In a negative sentence, we use any longer or any more. It goes at the end of the sentence:

  • We don’t live in England any longer.
  • It wasn’tsafe to stay in the country any more.

already

We use already to show that something has happened sooner than it was expected to happen. It goes in front of the main verb:

  • The car is OK. I’ve alreadyfixed
  • It was early but they were alreadysleeping.

or after the present simple or past simple of be:

  • It was early but we werealready
  • We arealready

Sometimes already comes at the end of the sentence for emphasis:

  • It’s very early but they are sleeping already.
  • It was early but we were tired already.
  • When we got there, most people had arrived already.

 

yet

We use yet in a negative or interrogative clause, usually with perfective aspect (especially in British English), to show that something has not happened by a particular timeyet comes at the end of a sentence:

  • It was late, but they hadn’t arrived yet.
  • Have you fixed the car yet?
  • She won’t have sent the email yet.

Adverbials of probability

We use adverbials of probability to show how certain we are about something. The commonest adverbials of probability are:

certainlydefinitelymaybepossibly
clearlyobviously perhapsprobably

maybe and perhaps usually come at the beginning of the clause:

  • Perhaps the weather will be fine.
  • Maybe it won’t rain.

Other adverbs of possibility usually come in front of the main verb:

  • He is certainly comingto the party.
  • Will they definitelybe there?
  • We will possiblycome to England next year.

or after the present simple or past simple of be:

  • They aredefinitely at home.
  • She wasobviously very surprised.

But these adverbs sometimes come at the beginning of a clause for emphasis:

  • Obviously,she was very surprised.
  • Possibly we will come to England next year.

 

Comparative and superlative adverbs

Comparative adverbs

 

We can use comparative adverbs to show change or make comparisons:

 

  • I forget things more often
  • She began to speak more quickly.
  • They are working harder 

We often use than with comparative adverbs:

  • I forget things more often than I used to.
  • Girls usually work harder than 

We use these words and phrases as intensifiers with comparatives:

muchfara lotquite a lot
a great deala good deala good bita fair bit

I forget things much more often nowadays.

We use these words and phrases as mitigators:

a bit slightlyrather
a littlea little bitjust a little bit

She began to speak a bit more quickly.

Superlative adverbs

 

We can use superlative adverbs to make comparisons:

  • His ankles hurt badly, but his knees hurt worst.
  • It rainsmost often at the beginning of the year.

We use these words and phrases as intensifiers with superlatives:

easilyby farmuch

When we intensify a superlative adverb, we often put the in front of the adverb:

  • In our office, Jill worksby far the hardest.
  • Of the three brothers, Brianeasily runs the fastest.

 

How to form comparative and superlative adverbs

We make comparative and superlative adverbs using the same rules as for comparative and superlative adjectives. For example:

One syllable: Jill works fast.>faster>fastest
One syllable ending in –e: They arrived late.>later>latest
Two or more syllables: Alan finished the test quickly.>more quickly>most quickly
wellShe speaks English well.>better>best
badlyShe speaks German badly.>worse>worst
farHe’ll go far.>farther/further>farthest/furthest

 

Adjective

Definition

 

An adjective is a part of speech which describes, identifies, or quantifies a noun or a pronoun. So basically, the main function of an adjective is to modify a noun or a pronoun so that it will become more specific and interesting. Instead of just one word, a group of words with a subject and a verb, can also function as an adjective. When this happens, the group of words is called an adjective clause.

 

For example:

 

My brother, who is much older than I am, is an astronaut.

 

In the example above, the underlined clause modifies the noun” brother.”

 

What are the Different Kinds of Adjectives?

 

Now that you already know the answer to the question, “What is an adjective?” you should know that not all adjectives are the same. They modify nouns and pronouns differently, and just like the other parts of speech, there are different kinds of adjectives. These are:

 

1. Descriptive Adjectives

 

Among the different kinds of adjectives, descriptive adjectives are probably the most common ones. They simply say something about the quality or the kind of the noun or pronoun they’re referring to.

 

Examples:

 

  • Erika is witty.
  • She is tired.
  • Adrian’s reflexes are amazing.

2. Adjectives of Number or Adjectives of Quantity

 

As the name suggests, this kind of adjective answers the question, “How many?” or “How much?”

 

Examples:

 

  • The plants need more
  • Twenty-one students failed the exam.

3. Demonstrative Adjectives

 

Demonstrative adjectives point out pronouns and nouns, and always come before the words they are referring to.

 

Examples:

 

  • I used to buy this kind of shirts.
  • When the old man tripped over that wire, he dropped a whole bag of groceries.

 

4. Possessive Adjectives

 

Obviously, this kind of adjectives shows ownership or possession. Aside from that, possessive adjectives always come before the noun.

 

Examples:

 

  • I can’t answer my seatwork because I don’t have a calculator.
  • Trisha sold his

 

5. Interrogative Adjectives

 

Interrogative adjectives ask questions and are always followed by a noun.

 

Examples:

 

  • What movie are you watching?
  • Which plants should be placed over here?

 

What are the Degrees of Adjectives?

 

There are only three degrees or levels of adjectives (also known as degrees of comparison) namely, positive, comparative, and superlative. When you talk about or describe only a single person, place, or thing, you should use the positive degree.

 

Examples:

 

  • She is a beautiful
  • It was a memorable

 

If on the other hand, you are comparing two persons, places, or things, it is appropriate to use the comparative degree of the word. Normally, you will need to add “- er” to transform the word into its comparative form or add the word “more.” Also, the word “than” should be added after the adjective in the comparative degree.

 

Examples:

 

  • This swimming pool is bigger than that one.
  • Ashley is more intelligent than Aldrin.

 

Note: 

 

For words ending in “y,” you should first change the “y” into “i,” and then add “-er” (e.g., lovely-lovelier; pretty- prettier; tasty- tastier)

 

Lastly, if you are comparing more than two things, the superlative form of the adjectives should be used and the word “the” should be added before the adjective.

In order to transform the adjective into its superlative form, you just have to add the suffix “-est” or the word “most.”

 

Examples:

 

  • That is by far, the tallest tree I have ever seen in my entire life.
  • This is the most crucial match of the season.

 

Note:

 

 For words ending in “y,” you should first change the “y” into “i,” and then add “-est” (e.g., lovely-loveliest; pretty- prettiest; tasty- tastiest)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Incorrect and Correct sentences based on Adjectives

Adjective

An adjective modifies a noun or pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.

The highlighted words are adjectives-

 

  • The truckshaped balloon floated over the treetops.
  • The small boat foundered on the wine dark
  • The coal mines are dark and dank.
  • The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots.

Kinds of adjective

 

  • Adjective of quality: –

 

Adjective showing the kind or quality of nouns or pronouns are called Adjective of Quality.

 

  • Adjective of quantity: –

 

Adjective which shows the quantity of thing is called the Adjective of Quantity.

 

  • Demonstrative adjective: –

 

This Adjective straight=away points out the person or thing concerned

 

The four words this, that, these and those are called demonstratives.

 

  • Incorrect He is sick.
  • Correct He is ill.

 

  • Incorrect I have strong headache.
  • Correct I have a severe headache.

 

  • Incorrect This is more preferable than that.
  • Correct This is preferable to that.

 

  • Incorrect No less than fifty students were present.
  • Correct No fewer than fifty students were present.

 

  • Incorrect I want a little quantity of milk.
  • Correct I want a small quantity of milk.

 

  • Incorrect John only is guilty.
  • Correct John alone is guilty.

 

  • Incorrect Do not go out in the sun with your head open.
  • Correct Do not go out in the sun with your head bare OR uncovered.

 

  • Incorrect Give a verbal translation of the passage.
  • Correct Give a literal translation of the passage.

 

  • Incorrect The association has three thousands of rupees in cash.
  • Correct The association has only three thousand rupees.

 

Common Errors with Adjectives – Part III

 

  • Incorrect: We live in city.
  • Correct: We live in a city.

 

Explanation

A singular common noun (e.g. city, state, country, boy, girl, teacher etc.) takes the article a/an before it. But if the common noun refers to a particular person or thing it requires the definite article the whether the noun is singular or plural.

 

Compare:

 

  • We live in a city.

            (Here we use the indefinite article because we are not referring to any particular city.)

 

  • The city is very big.

(Here we use the definite article (the) because we are referring to a particular city that has already been mentioned in a previous sentence.)

 

  • Incorrect: He is best player.
  • Correct: He is the best player.

 

  • Incorrect: She is a most intelligent girl in the class.
  • Correct: She is the most intelligent girl in the class.

 

Explanation

Adjectives in the superlative degree takes the article the before them.

 

  • Incorrect: The London is big city.
  • Correct: London is a big city.

 

  • Incorrect: I live in the Mumbai.
  • Correct: I live in Mumbai.

 

Explanation

Both London and Mumbai are proper nouns because they are the names of particular cities. Proper nouns do not take articles before them.

Remember that a noun can be proper in one sentence and common in another sentence; so it is useless to label a particular noun as proper or common.

 

  • Incorrect: The gold is yellow.
  • Correct: Gold is yellow.

Explanation

Material nouns (gold, rice, silver, iron, wood, marble etc.) do not take articles before them.

 

  • Incorrect: Himalayas are mountains.
  • Correct: The Himalayas are mountains.

 

  • Incorrect: We should love the God.
  • Correct: We should love God.

 

  • Incorrect: The man is a member of society.
  • Correct: Man is a member of society.

Explanation

Here the noun man refers to the whole of mankind. We do not use                           articles before a noun used to refer to the whole of its kind.

 

  • Incorrect: We had a picnics nearly every day.
  • Correct: We had picnics nearly every day.

 

Articles are not normally used before plural common nouns that do not refer to a particular person or thing.

 

  • Incorrect: Each of us loves our country.
  • Correct: Each of us loves his/her country.

 

  • Incorrect: None of the boys had brought their books.
  • Correct: None of the boys had brought his books.

 

Explanation

                                    The pronoun referring back to singular words like each, every and none should be singular in number.

 

            Notethat this rule is no longer strictly followed.

Sentences like ‘Each of us loves our country’ and ‘None of the boys had brought their books’

are now considered correct in informal speech and writing. However, in a formal style you must stick to the rules and use the correct pronoun.

 

Common Errors with Adjectives – Part II

 

  • Incorrect: In our school the number of students is less.
  • Correct: In our school the number of students is small.

 

Explanation

Less is the comparative of little. Comparative forms are not used in sentences where no comparison is implied.

         But is the sentence In our school the number of students is little’ correct? No.

 

The adjective little can be used only in the attributive position (before a noun).     In the predicative position (after a verb like is) we have to use a word with a   similar meaning.

 

  • Incorrect: From the two she is pretty.
  • Correct: She is the prettier of the two.

 

  • Incorrect: Of the two routes this is the short.
  • Correct: Of the two routes this is the shorter.

 

            Explanation

When a comparison is made between two people or things we use a structure with of, not from. Note that we use an adjective or adverb in the comparative form to compare two people or things.

 

  • Incorrect: From the three he is the smarter.
  • Correct: He is the smartest of the three.

 

Explanation

To compare more than two people or things we use an adjective or adverb in the superlative degree.

 

  • Incorrect: There is a best student in that class.
  • Correct: There is a very good student in that class.

 

            Explanation

It is wrong to use comparative and superlative forms when no comparison is implied.

 

 

Compare:

  • Charles is the smartest boy in the class.

(Here Charles is being compared with other boys in the class. Therefore, we use a superlative adjective.)

 

  • He is the smarter of the two brothers.

(Here a comparison is made between two people. Therefore, we use a comparative adjective.)

 

  • He is a smart boy. OR He is very smart.

 (Here no comparison is implied. Therefore, we use a positive adjective.)

 

  • Incorrect: I have never seen a so good boy.
  • Correct: I have never seen such a good boy.
  • Correct: I have never seen so good a boy.
  • Incorrect: He was a so big man that he could not sit in that chair.
  • Correct: He was so big a man that he could not sit in that chair.

 

Explanation

So is very often used in the rather formal structure so + adjective + a/an + singular countable noun.

            Note that it is wrong to put the article before so in this structure.

 

  • Incorrect: Yours affectionate brother
  • Correct: Your affectionate brother
  • Correct: Yours affectionately

 

  • Incorrect: Your lovely friend
  • Correct: Your loving friend

Lovely doesn’t mean the same as loving.

 

Common Errors with Adjectives

 

  • Incorrect: Every one knows this.
  • Correct: Everyone knows this.

 

Explanation

Everyone should be written as one word.

 

  • Incorrect: He held the bag in the both hands.
  • Correct: He held the bag in both hands.
  • Correct: He held the bag in both his hands.

 

            Explanation

We do not use the before both.

 

  • Incorrect: Everybody should do some or other work.
  • Correct: Everybody should do some work or other.

 

  • Incorrect: Iron is more useful than any other metals.
  • Correct: Iron is more useful than any other metal.

 

  • Incorrect: Winston Churchill is greater than any other British politicians.
  • Correct: Winston Churchill is greater than any other British politician.

 

Explanation

In these comparative sentences we should use a singular noun after any other.

 

  • Incorrect: He came a 3rd time.
  • Correct: He came a third time.

 

  • Incorrect: He is in class eighth.
  • Correct: He is in class eight.
  • Correct: He is in the eighth class.

 

  • Incorrect: He opened the book at six page.
  • Correct: He opened the book at page six.

 

  • Incorrect: This is a portrait of King George the sixth.
  • Correct: This is a portrait of King George VI.

 

Explanation

 

The numbers of kings and queens should be written in Roman characters. Examples are: Elizabeth II, Louis XIV

 

Ordinal numbers (e.g. first, second, tenth etc.) up to twelfth should be written in words except in dates.

Examples

18th October 2003 (NOT Eighteenth October 2003)

 

  • This is the fifth time you have asked the same question.

 (NOT This is the 5th time …)

 

Dates should be written as follows:  July 7th or 7th July. (NOT 7th of July or seventh of July)

 

Cardinal numbers up to twelve should be written in words except when telling the time.

 

Examples

 

  • He came at 10 am. (NOT He came at ten am.)
  • She has seven siblings. (NOT She has 7 siblings.)

 

Cardinal and ordinal numbers above twelve and twelfth may be written in either words or figures.

 

  • Incorrect: He is worst than you.
  • Correct: He is worse than you.

 

  • Incorrect: Mumbai is hot than Delhi.
  • Correct: Mumbai is hotter than Delhi.

 

Explanation

Only an adjective or adverb in the comparative degree can be used                         before than.

  • Incorrect: A horse is usefuller than a car.
  • Correct: A horse is more useful than a car.

 

Adjectives and adverbs having more than one syllable form their comparative and superlative forms by the addition of more and most.

Correct Use of Some Adjectives

 

Adjectives with verbs

An adjective can be used with a verb when some quality of the subject, rather than the action of the verb is to be expressed.

 

Read the sentences given below:

 

  • Roses smell sweet. (NOT sweetly)

Here what we are talking about is a particular quality of the subject (roses).

 

  • She looks smart. (NOT smartly)
  • The milk turned sour. (NOT sourly)
  • I feel sad. (NOT sadly)

 

Kind and Kinds

As a general rule the word kind is singular and should be used with that and this to modify a singular noun. Similarly, the word kinds is plural and should be used with these or those to modify a plural noun.

 

  • This kind of thing . These kinds of things
  • These sorts of apples . Those kinds of dogs

 

This rule, however, is not strictly followed. Expressions such as ‘this kind of things’ and ‘these kind of things’ are now used even by educated native speakers.

 

Comparison of Adjectives

When a comparison is made by means of a comparative followed by than, the thing that is compared must be excluded from the group of things with which it is compared. This is usually accomplished by using a word such as other.

  • James was wiser than any other man. OR James was wiser than all other men. (NOT James was wiser than all men/any man.)

 

  • The Taj Mahal is more beautiful than all other mausoleums.

             OR The Taj Mahal is more beautiful than any other mausoleum.

 

  • The crocodile is larger than any other reptile.

             OR The crocodile is larger than all other reptiles.

 

When a comparison is made by means of a superlative, the thing that is compared must be a part of the group of things with which it is compared.

 

  • Solomon was the wisest of all men. (NOT … all other men.)
  • The crocodile is the largest of all reptiles. (NOT … all reptiles.)

 

Another very common error is exemplified in the following example:

 

Wrong: The population of Tokyo is greater than any other city in India.

 

The above sentence is wrong because it makes a comparison between the population of Tokyo and cities in India whereas the comparison should have been made between the population of Tokyo and the population of the cities in India.

 Therefore we should say:

 

Right: The population of Tokyo is greater than that of any other city in India.

 

More examples are given below:

 

  • Incorrect: The quality of education provided by our school is better than any other school.
  • Correct: The quality of education provided by our school is better than that provided by any other    school.

 

Correct Use of Some Adjectives

 Adjectives with verbs

An adjective can be used with a verb when some quality of the subject, rather than the action of the verb is to be expressed.

 

Go through the sentences given below:

 

  • Roses smell sweet. (NOT sweetly)

Here what we are talking about is a particular quality of the subject (roses).

  • She looks smart. (NOT smartly)
  • The milk turned sour. (NOT sourly)
  • I feel sad. (NOT sadly)

 

Kind and Kinds

                             As a general rule the word kind is singular and should be used with that and this to modify a singular noun. Similarly, the word kinds is plural and should be used with these or those to modify a plural noun.

 

  • This kind of thing
  • Those kinds of dogs
  • These sorts of apples
  • These kinds of things

 

This rule, however, is not strictly followed. Expressions such as ‘this kind of things’ and ‘this kind of things’ are now used even by educated native speakers.

 

Adjective

Definition

 

An adjective is a part of speech which describes, identifies, or quantifies a noun or a pronoun. So basically, the main function of an adjective is to modify a noun or a pronoun so that it will become more specific and interesting. Instead of just one word, a group of words with a subject and a verb, can also function as an adjective. When this happens, the group of words is called an adjective clause.

 

For example:

 

My brother, who is much older than I am, is an astronaut.

 

In the example above, the underlined clause modifies the noun” brother.”

 

What are the Different Kinds of Adjectives?

 

Now that you already know the answer to the question, “What is an adjective?” you should know that not all adjectives are the same. They modify nouns and pronouns differently, and just like the other parts of speech, there are different kinds of adjectives. These are:

 

1. Descriptive Adjectives

 

Among the different kinds of adjectives, descriptive adjectives are probably the most common ones. They simply say something about the quality or the kind of the noun or pronoun they’re referring to.

 

Examples:

 

  • Erika is witty.
  • She is tired.
  • Adrian’s reflexes are amazing.

2. Adjectives of Number or Adjectives of Quantity

 

As the name suggests, this kind of adjective answers the question, “How many?” or “How much?”

 

Examples:

 

  • The plants need more
  • Twenty-one students failed the exam.

3. Demonstrative Adjectives

 

Demonstrative adjectives point out pronouns and nouns, and always come before the words they are referring to.

 

Examples:

 

  • I used to buy this kind of shirts.
  • When the old man tripped over that wire, he dropped a whole bag of groceries.

 

4. Possessive Adjectives

 

Obviously, this kind of adjectives shows ownership or possession. Aside from that, possessive adjectives always come before the noun.

 

Examples:

 

  • I can’t answer my seatwork because I don’t have a calculator.
  • Trisha sold his

 

5. Interrogative Adjectives

 

Interrogative adjectives ask questions and are always followed by a noun.

 

Examples:

 

  • What movie are you watching?
  • Which plants should be placed over here?

 

What are the Degrees of Adjectives?

 

There are only three degrees or levels of adjectives (also known as degrees of comparison) namely, positive, comparative, and superlative. When you talk about or describe only a single person, place, or thing, you should use the positive degree.

 

Examples:

 

  • She is a beautiful
  • It was a memorable

 

If on the other hand, you are comparing two persons, places, or things, it is appropriate to use the comparative degree of the word. Normally, you will need to add “- er” to transform the word into its comparative form or add the word “more.” Also, the word “than” should be added after the adjective in the comparative degree.

 

Examples:

 

  • This swimming pool is bigger than that one.
  • Ashley is more intelligent than Aldrin.

 

Note: 

 

For words ending in “y,” you should first change the “y” into “i,” and then add “-er” (e.g., lovely-lovelier; pretty- prettier; tasty- tastier)

 

Lastly, if you are comparing more than two things, the superlative form of the adjectives should be used and the word “the” should be added before the adjective.

In order to transform the adjective into its superlative form, you just have to add the suffix “-est” or the word “most.”

 

Examples:

 

  • That is by far, the tallest tree I have ever seen in my entire life.
  • This is the most crucial match of the season.

 

Note:

 

 For words ending in “y,” you should first change the “y” into “i,” and then add “-est” (e.g., lovely-loveliest; pretty- prettiest; tasty- tastiest)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Incorrect and Correct sentences based on Adjectives

Adjective

An adjective modifies a noun or pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.

The highlighted words are adjectives-

 

  • The truckshaped balloon floated over the treetops.
  • The small boat foundered on the wine dark
  • The coal mines are dark and dank.
  • The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots.

Kinds of adjective

 

  • Adjective of quality: –

 

Adjective showing the kind or quality of nouns or pronouns are called Adjective of Quality.

 

  • Adjective of quantity: –

 

Adjective which shows the quantity of thing is called the Adjective of Quantity.

 

  • Demonstrative adjective: –

 

This Adjective straight=away points out the person or thing concerned

 

The four words this, that, these and those are called demonstratives.

 

  • Incorrect He is sick.
  • Correct He is ill.

 

  • Incorrect I have strong headache.
  • Correct I have a severe headache.

 

  • Incorrect This is more preferable than that.
  • Correct This is preferable to that.

 

  • Incorrect No less than fifty students were present.
  • Correct No fewer than fifty students were present.

 

  • Incorrect I want a little quantity of milk.
  • Correct I want a small quantity of milk.

 

  • Incorrect John only is guilty.
  • Correct John alone is guilty.

 

  • Incorrect Do not go out in the sun with your head open.
  • Correct Do not go out in the sun with your head bare OR uncovered.

 

  • Incorrect Give a verbal translation of the passage.
  • Correct Give a literal translation of the passage.

 

  • Incorrect The association has three thousands of rupees in cash.
  • Correct The association has only three thousand rupees.

 

Common Errors with Adjectives – Part III

 

  • Incorrect: We live in city.
  • Correct: We live in a city.

 

Explanation

A singular common noun (e.g. city, state, country, boy, girl, teacher etc.) takes the article a/an before it. But if the common noun refers to a particular person or thing it requires the definite article the whether the noun is singular or plural.

 

Compare:

 

  • We live in a city.

            (Here we use the indefinite article because we are not referring to any particular city.)

 

  • The city is very big.

(Here we use the definite article (the) because we are referring to a particular city that has already been mentioned in a previous sentence.)

 

  • Incorrect: He is best player.
  • Correct: He is the best player.

 

  • Incorrect: She is a most intelligent girl in the class.
  • Correct: She is the most intelligent girl in the class.

 

Explanation

Adjectives in the superlative degree takes the article the before them.

 

  • Incorrect: The London is big city.
  • Correct: London is a big city.

 

  • Incorrect: I live in the Mumbai.
  • Correct: I live in Mumbai.

 

Explanation

Both London and Mumbai are proper nouns because they are the names of particular cities. Proper nouns do not take articles before them.

Remember that a noun can be proper in one sentence and common in another sentence; so it is useless to label a particular noun as proper or common.

 

  • Incorrect: The gold is yellow.
  • Correct: Gold is yellow.

Explanation

Material nouns (gold, rice, silver, iron, wood, marble etc.) do not take articles before them.

 

  • Incorrect: Himalayas are mountains.
  • Correct: The Himalayas are mountains.

 

  • Incorrect: We should love the God.
  • Correct: We should love God.

 

  • Incorrect: The man is a member of society.
  • Correct: Man is a member of society.

Explanation

Here the noun man refers to the whole of mankind. We do not use                           articles before a noun used to refer to the whole of its kind.

 

  • Incorrect: We had a picnics nearly every day.
  • Correct: We had picnics nearly every day.

 

Articles are not normally used before plural common nouns that do not refer to a particular person or thing.

 

  • Incorrect: Each of us loves our country.
  • Correct: Each of us loves his/her country.

 

  • Incorrect: None of the boys had brought their books.
  • Correct: None of the boys had brought his books.

 

Explanation

                                    The pronoun referring back to singular words like each, every and none should be singular in number.

 

            Notethat this rule is no longer strictly followed.

Sentences like ‘Each of us loves our country’ and ‘None of the boys had brought their books’

are now considered correct in informal speech and writing. However, in a formal style you must stick to the rules and use the correct pronoun.

 

Common Errors with Adjectives – Part II

 

  • Incorrect: In our school the number of students is less.
  • Correct: In our school the number of students is small.

 

Explanation

Less is the comparative of little. Comparative forms are not used in sentences where no comparison is implied.

         But is the sentence In our school the number of students is little’ correct? No.

 

The adjective little can be used only in the attributive position (before a noun).     In the predicative position (after a verb like is) we have to use a word with a   similar meaning.

 

  • Incorrect: From the two she is pretty.
  • Correct: She is the prettier of the two.

 

  • Incorrect: Of the two routes this is the short.
  • Correct: Of the two routes this is the shorter.

 

            Explanation

When a comparison is made between two people or things we use a structure with of, not from. Note that we use an adjective or adverb in the comparative form to compare two people or things.

 

  • Incorrect: From the three he is the smarter.
  • Correct: He is the smartest of the three.

 

Explanation

To compare more than two people or things we use an adjective or adverb in the superlative degree.

 

  • Incorrect: There is a best student in that class.
  • Correct: There is a very good student in that class.

 

            Explanation

It is wrong to use comparative and superlative forms when no comparison is implied.

 

 

Compare:

  • Charles is the smartest boy in the class.

(Here Charles is being compared with other boys in the class. Therefore, we use a superlative adjective.)

 

  • He is the smarter of the two brothers.

(Here a comparison is made between two people. Therefore, we use a comparative adjective.)

 

  • He is a smart boy. OR He is very smart.

 (Here no comparison is implied. Therefore, we use a positive adjective.)

 

  • Incorrect: I have never seen a so good boy.
  • Correct: I have never seen such a good boy.
  • Correct: I have never seen so good a boy.
  • Incorrect: He was a so big man that he could not sit in that chair.
  • Correct: He was so big a man that he could not sit in that chair.

 

Explanation

So is very often used in the rather formal structure so + adjective + a/an + singular countable noun.

            Note that it is wrong to put the article before so in this structure.

 

  • Incorrect: Yours affectionate brother
  • Correct: Your affectionate brother
  • Correct: Yours affectionately

 

  • Incorrect: Your lovely friend
  • Correct: Your loving friend

Lovely doesn’t mean the same as loving.

 

Common Errors with Adjectives

 

  • Incorrect: Every one knows this.
  • Correct: Everyone knows this.

 

Explanation

Everyone should be written as one word.

 

  • Incorrect: He held the bag in the both hands.
  • Correct: He held the bag in both hands.
  • Correct: He held the bag in both his hands.

 

            Explanation

We do not use the before both.

 

  • Incorrect: Everybody should do some or other work.
  • Correct: Everybody should do some work or other.

 

  • Incorrect: Iron is more useful than any other metals.
  • Correct: Iron is more useful than any other metal.

 

  • Incorrect: Winston Churchill is greater than any other British politicians.
  • Correct: Winston Churchill is greater than any other British politician.

 

Explanation

In these comparative sentences we should use a singular noun after any other.

 

  • Incorrect: He came a 3rd time.
  • Correct: He came a third time.

 

  • Incorrect: He is in class eighth.
  • Correct: He is in class eight.
  • Correct: He is in the eighth class.

 

  • Incorrect: He opened the book at six page.
  • Correct: He opened the book at page six.

 

  • Incorrect: This is a portrait of King George the sixth.
  • Correct: This is a portrait of King George VI.

 

Explanation

 

The numbers of kings and queens should be written in Roman characters. Examples are: Elizabeth II, Louis XIV

 

Ordinal numbers (e.g. first, second, tenth etc.) up to twelfth should be written in words except in dates.

Examples

18th October 2003 (NOT Eighteenth October 2003)

 

  • This is the fifth time you have asked the same question.

 (NOT This is the 5th time …)

 

Dates should be written as follows:  July 7th or 7th July. (NOT 7th of July or seventh of July)

 

Cardinal numbers up to twelve should be written in words except when telling the time.

 

Examples

 

  • He came at 10 am. (NOT He came at ten am.)
  • She has seven siblings. (NOT She has 7 siblings.)

 

Cardinal and ordinal numbers above twelve and twelfth may be written in either words or figures.

 

  • Incorrect: He is worst than you.
  • Correct: He is worse than you.

 

  • Incorrect: Mumbai is hot than Delhi.
  • Correct: Mumbai is hotter than Delhi.

 

Explanation

Only an adjective or adverb in the comparative degree can be used                         before than.

  • Incorrect: A horse is usefuller than a car.
  • Correct: A horse is more useful than a car.

 

Adjectives and adverbs having more than one syllable form their comparative and superlative forms by the addition of more and most.

Correct Use of Some Adjectives

 

Adjectives with verbs

An adjective can be used with a verb when some quality of the subject, rather than the action of the verb is to be expressed.

 

Read the sentences given below:

 

  • Roses smell sweet. (NOT sweetly)

Here what we are talking about is a particular quality of the subject (roses).

 

  • She looks smart. (NOT smartly)
  • The milk turned sour. (NOT sourly)
  • I feel sad. (NOT sadly)

 

Kind and Kinds

As a general rule the word kind is singular and should be used with that and this to modify a singular noun. Similarly, the word kinds is plural and should be used with these or those to modify a plural noun.

 

  • This kind of thing . These kinds of things
  • These sorts of apples . Those kinds of dogs

 

This rule, however, is not strictly followed. Expressions such as ‘this kind of things’ and ‘these kind of things’ are now used even by educated native speakers.

 

Comparison of Adjectives

When a comparison is made by means of a comparative followed by than, the thing that is compared must be excluded from the group of things with which it is compared. This is usually accomplished by using a word such as other.

  • James was wiser than any other man. OR James was wiser than all other men. (NOT James was wiser than all men/any man.)

 

  • The Taj Mahal is more beautiful than all other mausoleums.

             OR The Taj Mahal is more beautiful than any other mausoleum.

 

  • The crocodile is larger than any other reptile.

             OR The crocodile is larger than all other reptiles.

 

When a comparison is made by means of a superlative, the thing that is compared must be a part of the group of things with which it is compared.

 

  • Solomon was the wisest of all men. (NOT … all other men.)
  • The crocodile is the largest of all reptiles. (NOT … all reptiles.)

 

Another very common error is exemplified in the following example:

 

Wrong: The population of Tokyo is greater than any other city in India.

 

The above sentence is wrong because it makes a comparison between the population of Tokyo and cities in India whereas the comparison should have been made between the population of Tokyo and the population of the cities in India.

 Therefore we should say:

 

Right: The population of Tokyo is greater than that of any other city in India.

 

More examples are given below:

 

  • Incorrect: The quality of education provided by our school is better than any other school.
  • Correct: The quality of education provided by our school is better than that provided by any other    school.

 

Correct Use of Some Adjectives

 Adjectives with verbs

An adjective can be used with a verb when some quality of the subject, rather than the action of the verb is to be expressed.

 

Go through the sentences given below:

 

  • Roses smell sweet. (NOT sweetly)

Here what we are talking about is a particular quality of the subject (roses).

  • She looks smart. (NOT smartly)
  • The milk turned sour. (NOT sourly)
  • I feel sad. (NOT sadly)

 

Kind and Kinds

                             As a general rule the word kind is singular and should be used with that and this to modify a singular noun. Similarly, the word kinds is plural and should be used with these or those to modify a plural noun.

 

  • This kind of thing
  • Those kinds of dogs
  • These sorts of apples
  • These kinds of things

 

This rule, however, is not strictly followed. Expressions such as ‘this kind of things’ and ‘this kind of things’ are now used even by educated native speakers.

 

Pronoun

Definition

A pronoun is a word which is used in place of a proper noun or a common noun. Generally, a pronoun takes the place of a particular noun. The pronoun refers to its antecedent. A pronoun helps us avoid unnecessary repetition in our writing and speech.

In other words, words that can be used instead of a noun are called pronouns. The word “pronoun” means “for a noun”.

Let’s understand pronouns with the help of these example sentences:

  • Look at Mike. Mike is a good boy.
  • Mike loves to study. Mike is good at skating.

Instead of Mike we can use ‘he ‘.

 

Now read these sentences again:

 

  • Look at Mike. He is a good boy.
  • He loves to study. He is good at skating.

The word ‘he ‘takes the place of Mike and is called pronoun.

Types of Pronouns

 

 

 

 

Personal Pronouns

 

Personal pronouns are used to replace nouns or noun phrases.

 

Personal pronouns stand for three persons:

  1. First Person
  2. Second Person
  3. Third Person

Personal pronoun of the first person stands for the person(s) speaking.
(I, we, me, us)

Example Sentences:

  1. This car belongs to us.
  2. I won the award.
  3. The matter is between Chris and me.
  4. We shall stand by the truth.

Personal pronoun of the second person stands for the person(s) spoken to.
(You, thou, thee)

Example Sentences:

  1. It is to thee that I owe a debt of gratitude.
  2. Only you are allowed to attend the party.
  3. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
  4. Why are you crying…?

Personal pronoun of the third person stands for the person(s) spoken of.
(He, she, it, they, them, him, her)

Example Sentences:

  1. I heard him telling them about the movie.
  2. He agreed to look after the baby.
  3. The headmistress likes her a lot.
  4. She asked me to review it by this evening.
  5. They went to the museum.
  6. It is an endangered species now.
  7. They were planning to hide it under the bed.

Personal pronouns for people: I, you, he, she, we, they, me, you, him, her, us, them
Personal pronouns for things and animals: it, they, them

Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns are used to join sentences or clauses, and they refer back to the nouns going before them.

Relative Pronouns List

  • who . which
  • whom . whose
  • that

Example Sentences:

  • This is the lady who helped me.
  • This is the book that my mother wrote.
  • There is the man whose horse won the race.
  • This is the house which belongs to my great-grandfather.
  • This is the person whom we met at the party.
  • This is the letter box that I was talking about.
  • A chair is a piece of furniture which we use for sitting.
  • I found the ring that I thought I had lost.
  • Jack is the boy whose sister is a famous tennis player.
  • This is the boy who scored the highest marks.

In relative pronouns we use the following pronoun words:

  • For people: who, whom
  • For animals and thing: which
  • And to show possession: whose, that

Emphatic Pronoun

Emphatic pronouns are pronouns used for highlighting, stressing or emphasizing the noun or pronoun that comes before it. An emphatic pronoun can be omitted without changing the sense of a sentence.

Emphatic Pronouns List

  • myself
  • himself
  • herself
  • itself
  • yourself
  • themselves
  • ourselves

Example Sentences

 

  • Joseph himself went to check the gate.
  • He himself is responsible for those low grades.
  • Jane herself looks into the nitty-gritty of running the house.
  • They themselves admitted to their mistakes.
  • The book itself tells you all about pronouns.
  • I myself am a slow walker.
  • The children themselves made the plan.
  • The village itself is very small.
  • We ourselves will be completing the assignment.
  • Ruskin Bond himself is a great author.

Indefinite Pronouns

An indefinite pronoun refers to an indefinite or general person or thing. These pronouns refer to people in a vague and general meaning.

  • All . none
  • any . nothing
  • each . several
  • everyone . some
  • few . somebody
  • many . everything
  • neither                                                             . nobody
  • anyone . someone
  • something

Example Sentences

  • Nobody attended the meeting. .     Everyone was smiling.
  • Something is wrong there. .     He never does favour to others.
  • Everything was told prior to the meeting. .     Many of them were injured.

An indefinite pronoun can stand for singular, plural or at times for both. The following lists some indefinite pronouns terms that are commonly used.

 

Singular

  • anyone . nothing
  • anything . neither
  • anybody . nobody
  • each . no one
  • everybody . one
  • everything . someone
  • either . somebody
  • everyone . something
  • little . much

Plural

  • both . many
  • few . others
  • several

Singular or Plural

  • all . most                                       . none

Example Sentences

  1. Every season one of the racers attempts to break Schumacher’s record. (Singular)
  2. Both have paid homage to their great ancestors. (Plural)
  3. All of the players we count on are out of form. (Plural)
  4. Almost all the money in my bank account has been spent. (Singular)

Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns point out people or objects. There are four demonstrative pronouns.

Demonstrative Pronouns List

  • this . these
  • that . those

Example Sentences

  • Those are my neighbour’s dogs.
  • This is my bicycle.
  • These are cakes and those are burgers.
  • In those days, we were young and innocent.
  • This is a present from my uncle.
  • That is the sound of a factory siren.
  • Are those your classmates…?
  • That is not the best thing to do.

 

When these words appear before nouns, they become demonstrative adjectives.

For example:

  • This car is better than that. . These animals are wilder than those.

In above sentences, ‘this’ and ‘these’ are demonstrative adjectives, and ‘that’ and ‘those’ are demonstrative adjectives, and ‘that’ and ‘those’ are demonstrative pronouns.

Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative pronouns ask questions. Compound interrogative pronouns (those ending in ‘ever’) are used to express surprise, confusion, irritation, etc.

Interrogative Pronoun List

  • which . what
  • who . whoever
  • whom . whomever
  • whatever . whichever

Example Sentences

  • Which is your book? . Whichever came first?
  • Who is there at the door? . Whose is this dress?
  • Whatever are you doing? . What do you mean?
  • Who is making noise? . Whoever came to the shop?
  • Whom were you speaking to? . Whomever should tom invite?

Possessive Pronouns

A possessive pronoun points towards the owner of something.

 

Possessive Pronouns List

 

  • his . ours
  • here . theirs
  • Mine . yours

Example

  • My aunt is a Graphic Designer. This computer is hers.
  • The blue hat is mine. Yours is on the upper shelf.

Often the words used as possessive pronouns are slight modifications of the words used as possessive adjectives. So, we may get confused at times.

Remember, that there is a major distinction between them. While possessive pronouns are used in place of nouns, possessive adjectives modify or describe nouns.

Example Sentences

  • This dress is mine. . This is her school.
  • This is my dress. . This house is theirs.
  • That school is hers. . This is their

In these sentences ‘mine’, ‘hers’ and ‘theirs’ are possessive pronouns, and ‘my’, ‘her’ and ‘their’ are possessive adjectives.

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are pronouns where the subject and the object are the same person(s), i.e. when the action of the verb refers back to the doer. Reflexive pronouns are formed by using ‘self’ in the singular and ‘selves’ in the plural.

 

 

 

Reflexive Pronouns List

  • yourself . itself
  • myself . yourselves
  • himself . themselves
  • herself . ourselves

 

Example Sentences

  • You are old enough to dress yourself.
  • Suddenly, I found myself in a dark corner.
  • The dog covered itself with dirt.
  • She contradicted herself, unknowingly.
  • They were discussing amongst themselves.
  • The only people there were ourselves.
  • John reminded himself that he had to try harder.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Incorrect and Correct sentences based on Pronoun

 

  • Incorrect He absented from the school yesterday.
  • Correct He absented himself from the school yesterday.

 

  • Incorrect He availed of the opportunity.
  • Correct He availed himself of the opportunity.

 

  • Incorrect Don’t pride on your victory.
  • Correct Don’t pride yourself on your victory.

 

  • Incorrect The girl wants to get herself married.
  • Correct The girl wants to get married.

 

  • Incorrect The climate of India is hotter than England.
  • Correct The climate of India is hotter than that of England.

 

  • Incorrect Everybody will get their share.
  • Correct Everybody will get his share.

 

  • Incorrect: Both did not come.
  • Correct: Neither came.

 

  • Incorrect: Both of them did not pass the test.
  • Correct: Neither of them passed the test.

In negative clauses, we use ‘neithernot both.

 

  • Incorrect: Each of these girls sing very well.
  • Correct: Each of these girls sings very well.

After each and every, we use a singular verb.

 

  • Incorrect: We all did not go.
  • Correct: None of us went.

 

  • Incorrect: We all had not been invited.
  • Correct: None of us had been invited.

 

  • Incorrect: One should love his country.
  • Correct: One should love one’s country.

 

  • Incorrect: ‘Have you got a pencil?’ ‘No, I haven’t got.’
  • Correct: ‘Have you got a pencil?’ ‘No, I haven’t got one.’ / ‘No, I don’t have one’.

Have is a transitive verb. It needs an object to complete its meaning.

 

  • Incorrect: ‘Is he at home?’ ‘Yes, I think.’
  • Correct: ‘Is he at home?’ ‘Yes, I think so.’

 

  • Incorrect: We enjoyed during the holidays.
  • Correct: We enjoyed ourselves during the holidays.

Enjoy is a transitive verb. It requires an object.

 

  • Incorrect: The boy who works hard he will get the prize.
  • Correct: The boy who works hard will get the prize.
  • Correct: Whoever works hard will get the prize.

 

  • Common Errors with Pronouns – Part II

 

  • Incorrect: The boy who works hard he will win.
  • Correct: The boy who works hard will win.

Explanation

This sentence has two clauses ‘the boy will win’ and ‘who works hard’ and each clause has its own subject. There is no need to use a pronoun when the noun it stands for is already present in the clause.

 

  • Incorrect: Whoever does best he will get a prize.
  • Correct: Whoever does best will get a prize.

 

  • Incorrect: Who painted this picture? Myself
  • Correct: Who painted this picture? I (myself)

Explanation

An emphatic pronoun (e.g. myself, himself, themselves, yourself) cannot be used as the subject of a sentence.

 

  • Incorrect: I and he are brothers.
  • Correct: He and I are brothers.

Explanation

It is considered conceited to put I first when there are two subjects.

 

  • Incorrect: I with my friends watched the show.
  • Correct: I watched the show with my friends.

 

  • Incorrect: He himself hurt due to his carelessness.
  • Correct: He hurt himself due to his carelessness.

Explanation

When a personal pronoun is used as subject it should not be separated from its verb if possible.

  • Incorrect: He is taller than me.
  • Correct: He is taller than I (am).

Explanation

The pronoun following than should be in the same case as the pronoun preceding it. Note that this rule is no longer strictly followed and the sentence ‘He is taller than me’ is considered correct.

 

  • Incorrect: None of us have seen him.
  • Correct: None of us has seen him.

Explanation

The words every, each, none etc., are singular in number and should be followed by singular verbs.

 

  • Incorrect: People starve when he has no money.
  • Correct: People starve when they have no money.

Explanation

The noun people is plural in number. The pronoun used instead of a plural noun should be plural in number.

 

  • Incorrect: My car is better than my friend.
  • Correct: My car is better than that of my friend.

 

  • Incorrect: The size of the shoe should be the same as this shoe.
  • Correct: The size of the shoe should be the same as that of this shoe.

 

  • Incorrect: His teaching was like Buddha.
  • Correct: His teaching was like that of Buddha.

 

Explanation

In a comparative sentence we must be careful to compare the same part of two things. That of, these of and those of.

 

  • Incorrect: None but I turned up.
  • Correct: None but me turned up.

 

  • Incorrect: They are all wrong but I.
  • Correct: They are all wrong but me.

 

Explanation

When but is used as a preposition it means except. The preposition but should be followed by a pronoun in the objective case.

 

Common Errors with Pronouns – Part I

 

  • Incorrect: Each of these girls sing well.
  • Correct: Each of these girls sings well.

 

  • Incorrect: None of my student attended the class today.
  • Correct: None of my students attended the class today.

 

  • Incorrect: One of my servant has gone on leave.
  • Correct: One of my servants has gone on leave.

 

  • Incorrect: Some of my servants has gone on leave.
  • Correct: Some of my servants have gone on leave.

 

Explanation

The noun following one of, none of, some of and similar expressions must be plural in number, but the verb agrees in number with the subject of the sentence. In the sentence ‘Each of these girls sings well’, the real subject is each which is a singular word. It should therefore be followed by a singular verb.

Other singular words which often cause confusion are: every, either, neither, none, much and person.

 

  • Incorrect: Some of my friends has decided to go on a picnic.
  • Correct: Some of my friends have decided to go on a picnic.

 

Explanation

Some is a plural word. It must be followed by a plural verb.

 

  • Incorrect: Both did not come.
  • Correct: Neither came.

 

Explanation

 

The expression both…not is not correct in standard English. Instead, we use neither.

 

  • Incorrect: One should respect his parents.
  • Correct: One should respect one’s parents.

 

Explanation

           

One, if used in a sentence, should be used throughout. More examples are given below:

 

  • One should take care of one’s health.
  • One should love one’s country.

 

  • Incorrect: One should work hard.
  • Correct: A man/woman/boy/girl should work hard.

 

The sentence ‘One should work hard’, is not wrong but in standard English the use of one as subject should be avoided when possible.

 

  • Incorrect: Here is the bottle: please fill.
  • Correct: Here is the bottle: please fill it.

 

  • Incorrect: Have you a pen? I have not got.
  • Correct: Have you a pen? I have not got one.

 

  • Incorrect: He enjoyed at the party.
  • Correct: He enjoyed himself at the party.

 

Explanation

The verbs fill, enjoy and got are transitive. All transitive verbs                     must have an expressed object.

 

  • Incorrect: I asked for his bicycle but he didn’t lend me.
  • Correct: I asked for his bicycle but he didn’t lend it to me.

 

  • Incorrect: Please give your book.
  • Correct: Please give me/him/her/them your book.

 

Explanation

Some transitive verbs like give and lend must have two expressed objects.

 

Correct Use of Nouns and Pronouns Part II

 

  • Pronouns used as complements of to be

Grammarians formerly recommended that a pronoun used as the complement of the verb to be should be in the nominative case. Today the use of the nominative case in such cases is considered extremely formal and over-correct. Instead, we use the objective case.

 

  • It is me. (Formal: It is I.)
  • It was him. (Formal: It was he.)

 

A pronoun used as the object of a verb or a preposition should be in the objective case.

 

  • You can’t trust him. (NOT You can’t trust he.)
  • We have invited them. (NOT We have invited they.)

 

            There is really no difference between you and him.

            (Here the pronouns you and him are used as the objects of the preposition between.)

 

  • He has given great trouble to us.

(Here we use the objective case because the pronoun us is the object of the verb to.)

 

A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number, person and gender.

 

  • All students should bring their books.

            (Here the pronoun their agrees with its antecedent students in number and person.)

 

  • John has brought his book.

            (Here the pronoun his agrees with its antecedent John in number, person and gender.)

  • Each of the girls gave her own version of the story.

 

  • I am not one of those who believe everything they hear.

            (Here the antecedent of the pronoun they is those and not I.)

 

Some grammarians recommend that the pronoun of the masculine gender should be used to refer back to anybody, everybody, anyone, each etc., when the sex is unknown.

 

  • Everybody ran as fast as he could.
  • Anybody can do it if he tries.

 

In modern English it is more common to use plural pronouns to refer back to anybody, everyone etc.

  • Everybody should bring their books. (Less formal)
  • Everybody should bring his books. (Very formal)
  • Everybody ran as fast as they could.
  • Each of them had their share. (Less formal)
  • Each of them had his share. (Very formal)

 

            Who and whom

                                     Who is in the nominative case; whom is in the objective case. I don’t know who (not whom) they were.

The student, whom you thought so highly of, has failed to win the first prize.  In modern English whom is unusual except in a formal style.

  • Who did you meet? (Less formal)
  • Whom did you meet? (Very formal)

 

Correct Use of Nouns and Pronouns

   Countable and uncountable nouns

 

Words like flower, book, tree, chair and pen are countable nouns because they refer to objects that can be counted. Countable nouns can have plural forms. They can also be used with numbers and the articles a/an.

 

  • There is a book on the table.. She sat in a chair.
  • There are two books on the table.. We need to buy some chairs.

 

Words like milk, water, knowledge and wisdom are uncountable nouns because they refer to objects or qualities that cannot be counted. Uncountable nouns do not normally have plural forms. They are also not used with the articles a/an.

 

  • Milk is rich in nutrients. (NOT A milk/milks …)
  • We subsist on rice. (NOT … a rice/rices.)
  • Water is essential for the existence of life.

 

Some common uncountable nouns are: furniture, advice, news, information, business, work, weather, traffic, scenery and bread.

  • Wrong: He gave me an advice.
  • Right: He gave me a piece of advice. OR He gave me some advice.

 

We normally use a phrase like a piece of/ a bottle of to talk about a unit of an uncountable thing.

 

Examples are given below:

 

  • A bottle of water (NOT A water)
  • A piece of work (NOT A work)
  • A piece of / a bar of soap

 

Noun

Definition

A noun is a part of speech that names a person, place, thing, idea, action or quality. All nouns can be classified into two groups of nouns, either common or proper.

 

Examples of Noun

 

Naming People

 

  • It could be a name of any person, for example: – John, Fatima, Singh, Michael, Tom and so on.

 

Naming Places

 

  • It could be a name of any place, for example: – America, China, Church, Taj Mahal, Paris and so on.

 

Naming Things

 

  • It could be a name of anything, for example: – Car, Hat, Bottle, Table, Chair, Ball and so on.

 

Naming Animals

 

  • It could be a name of any animal, for example: – Dog, Rabbit, Elephant, Chicken, Horse and so on.

 

Naming Feeling/Qualities/Ideas

 

  • It could be a name of any feeling, quality and idea for example: – Joy, Fear, Beauty, Strength, Anger and so on.

 

Example Sentences of Noun

 

  1. I live in Australia.                                          I love to play with my dog.
  2. Jenny is my sister.                                          The name of this monkey is Boo.
  3. Pacific Ocean is very vast.

 

Types of Nouns

 

Proper Noun

 

Names of people or places such as your name, your friend’s name, your parents’ name or the name of your town and country are special naming words. These words are called proper nouns. Special naming words or proper nouns always begin with a capital letter.

 

Example Sentences of Proper Noun

 

  1. My name is Mark. 3. Come Tom, let us go for a walk.

 

  1. Her name is Sofie. 4. I visited the Taj Mahal in India.

 

  1. My cousin lives in Norway. 6. Hello Jack! Will you play with me?

 

  1. These bears are from China. 8. Albert Einstein was born in Germany.

 

 

Understanding Proper Nouns

The days of the week and the months of the year are proper nouns.

 

Example Sentences

 

  1. Every Sunday Mike visits the church.

 

  1. Christmas comes in the month of December.

 

  1. My sister was born in March month.

 

  1. Sam goes for swimming classes every Friday.

 

The names of buildings, mountains, rivers and seas are also proper nouns.

 

Example Sentences

 

  1. River Nile is very long.

 

  1. I have seen the Great Wall of China.

 

  1. Last year we visited the Niagara Falls.

 

  1. Many people have climber the Mount Everest.

 

 

 

 

Common Noun

 

Common nouns are naming words that are common to people, places, things and animals etc. Common nouns do not define any particular person, place or thing. They are general names. So, they are not capitalized unless they begin a sentence. For example, boy, girl, doctor, town, city, dog, car and so on.

 

Example Sentences of Common Noun

 

  1. Teachers teach in school. 2. Birds live on trees.

 

  1. I love to read storybooks. 4. Sally’s mother is a doctor.

 

  1. These chocolates and cakes are so delicious.

 

Identify and learn about proper nouns and common nouns in the list of sentences below.

 

  1. Sony produces cameras too.

 

  1. Alicia and Cathy were playing with a doll.

 

  1. Sandy is joining school today.

 

  1. Hens have laid eggs at Todd‘s farm.

 

  1. The postman Mr. Robert was carrying postcards.

 

In above examples the words in italic words are proper noun whereas words in bold are common nouns.

 

Collective Noun

 

Collective nouns are used to name a group of persons, places, animals or things. A collective noun represents a complete whole. For examples: a library of books, a team of players and a family of four.

 

Some collective nouns are used to name a group of animals and birds.

 

 

  1. 1. A flock of sheep. A herd of cattle. 3. A stud of horses.                 

 

  1. A gaggle of geese. 5. A litter of cubs. 6.  A flock of birds.

                                                                       

  1. A shoal of fish.

 

                       

Some collective nouns define a group of people.

 

  1. 1. A crew of sailors. 5. A troupe of actors.

 

  1. An army of soldiers. 6. A panel of judges.

 

  1. A band of musicians. 7. A gang of robbers.

 

  1. A class of pupils.

 

There are some collective nouns that stand for a group of things.

 

  1. A bunch of keys.                                            A galaxy of stars.

 

  1. A pile of clothes.                                            A pack of cards.

 

  1. A collection of books.                                                An atlas of maps.

 

  1. A string of pearls.                                          A bouquet of flowers.

 

  1. A set of stamps.                                                          A bunch of grapes.

 

Example Sentences of Collective Noun

 

  1. My maternal aunt bought me a pair of tennis shoes.

 

  1. At the playground, you get to observe a colony of ants.

 

  1. A pile of clothes was kept on the bed.

 

  1. I need to finish an agenda of tasks before I leave.

 

  1. There is a network of computers in Joseph’s office.

 

Material Noun

 

A material noun refers to a tangible substance or ingredient. Specifically, it is a mass term for a chemical compound that cannot be counted. For example, ‘lead’ is a material noun and refers to the substance since you cannot break down all of its particles.

 

Example Sentences of Material Noun

 

  1. I have a cricket bat in my closet. 2. The bat is made of wood from a tree.

 

  1. My brother has a mobile phone. 4. The phone is made of plastic and metal.

 

  1. I need some water for the cake. 6. The jug is on the table.

 

  1. There is also a pen and a diary on it. 8. The pen is out of ink.

 

  1. Your shirt has a button short. 10. This ring is made of gold and diamond.

 

Here are some other examples of material nouns:

 

  • water
  • silver
  • silk
  • sand
  • iron

 

Abstract Noun

An abstract noun names a quality or an idea. Abstract nouns are nouns that name abstract concepts, or concepts that cannot be experienced with the senses. In contrast, concrete nouns name things that we can know by our senses (mosquito, grass, bacon, etc.) We can think of an abstract noun as being similar to an abstract painting. Both abstract nouns and abstract art represent ideas instead of concrete objects.

 

Example Sentences of Abstract Noun

 

Showing Human Qualities or Characteristics

 

CalmBeauty
CharityBravery
CourageBrutality
ColdnessBrilliance

 

Showing Emotions/Feelings

 

  • Anger . Anxiety
  • Clarity . Adoration
  • Delight . Amazement
  • Despair . Apprehension

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Incorrect and Correct sentences based on Noun

 

  • Incorrect The clock has struck five hours.
  • Correct The clock has struck five.

 

  • Incorrect There is no place in the hall.
  • Correct There is no room in the hall.

 

  • Incorrect Little thing has been done.
  • Correct Little has been done.

 

  • Incorrect We have an urgent business.
  • Correct We have an urgent piece of business.

 

  • Incorrect He came by the 4:30 o’clock train.
  • Correct He came by the 4:30 train.

 

  • Incorrect He left the place with his belonging goods.
  • Correct He left the place with his goods.

 

  • Incorrect: She likes to feed the poors.
  • Correct: She likes to feed the poor.

 

  • Incorrect: He is working for the blinds.
  • Correct: He is working for the blind.

 

Expressions like the poor, the blind, the deaf etc., are always plural. We don’t have to make their plural forms by adding –s to them.

 

  • Incorrect: I told this news to my father.
  • Correct: I told this news to my father.

 

News is a singular uncountable noun. Therefore, it has to be used with a singular determiner.

 

  • Incorrect: The teacher gave us many advices.
  • Correct: The teacher gave us some advice.

 

Advice is an uncountable noun. It does not have a plural form. The determiner many is only used with plural countable nouns.

 

  • Incorrect: I have a five dollars note.
  • Correct: I have a five dollar note.

 

  • Incorrect: She has bought two dozens apples.
  • Correct: She has bought two dozen apples.

 

  • Incorrect: I saw many deers in the jungle.
  • Correct: I saw many deer in the jungle.

 

The nouns sheep and deer have identical singular and plural forms.

 

  • Incorrect: Bring me some bloating.
  • Correct: Bring me some bloating paper.

 

  • Incorrect: The boy is in the boarding.
  • Correct: The boy is in the boarding house.

 

  • Incorrect: Please put your sign here.
  • Correct: Please put your signature here.

Noun phrases

Often a noun phrase is just a noun or a pronoun:

 

  • Peoplelike to have money.                                         . I am tired.

 

Premodifiers

 

But noun phrases can also include:

 

  • determiners:        Thosehouses are very expensive.

 

  • quantifiers:          I’ve lived in a lot of houses.

 

  • numbers:            My brother owns two

 

  • adjectives:          I love oldhouses.   

 

These parts of the noun phrase are called premodifiers because they go before the noun.

We use premodifiers in this order:

 

determiners and quantifiers>numbers>adjectives + NOUNS

For example:

Determiners and quantifiersNumbersAdjectivesNOUNS
Thesixchildren
Ouryoungchildren
Sixyoungchildren
Thesesixyoungchildren
Someyoungchildren
All thosesixyoungchildren
Their manyyoungchildren

 

Postmodifiers

Other parts of a noun phrase go after the noun. These are called postmodifiers.

Postmodifiers can be:

·          . prepositional phrases:

a man with a gun
the boy in the blue shirt
the house on the corner

·          . –ing phrases :

the man standing over there
the boy talking to Angela

·          . relative clauses :

the man we met yesterday
the house that Jack built
the woman who discovered radium
an eight-year-old boy who attempted to rob a sweet shop

·         . that clauses. These are very common after nouns like ideafactbeliefsuggestion:

He’s still very fit, in spite of the fact that he’s over eighty.
She got the idea that people didn’t like her.
There was a suggestion that the children should be sent home.

 

Phrasal Verbs- British School of Language

BSL British School of Language IELTS TOEFL PTE SPOEK ENGLISH STUDY ABROAD CONSULTANTS IN LUCKNOW KANPUR NEW DELHI

PHRASAL VERBS

phrasal verbmeaningexample sentence
ask somebody outinvite on a dateBrian asked Judy out to dinner and a movie.
ask aroundask many people the same questionasked around but nobody has seen my wallet.
add up to somethingequalYour purchases add up to $205.32.
back something upreverseYou’ll have to back up your car so that I can get out.
back somebody upsupportMy wife backed me up over my decision to quit my job.
blow upexplodeThe racing car blew up after it crashed into the fence.
blow something upadd airWe have to blow 50 balloons up for the party.
break downstop functioning (vehicle, machine)Our car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm.
break downget upsetThe woman broke down when the police told her that her son had died.
break something downdivide into smaller partsOur teacher broke the final project down into three separate parts.
break inforce entry to a buildingSomebody broke in last night and stole our stereo.
break into somethingenter forciblyThe firemen had to break into the room to rescue the children.
break something inwear something a few times so that it doesn’t look/feel newI need to break these shoes in before we run next week.
break ininterruptThe TV station broke in to report the news of the president’s death.
break upend a relationshipMy boyfriend and I broke up before I moved to America.
break upstart laughing (informal)The kids just broke up as soon as the clown started talking.
break outescapeThe prisoners broke out of jail when the guards weren’t looking.
break out in somethingdevelop a skin conditionbroke out in a rash after our camping trip.
bring somebody downmake unhappyThis sad music is bringing me down.
bring somebody upraise a childMy grandparents brought me up after my parents died.
bring something upstart talking about a subjectMy mother walks out of the room when my father brings up sports.
bring something upvomitHe drank so much that he brought his dinner up in the toilet.
call aroundphone many different places/peopleWe called around but we weren’t able to find the car part we needed.
call somebody backreturn a phone callcalled the company back but the offices were closed for the weekend.
call something offcancelJason called the wedding off because he wasn’t in love with his fiancé.
call on somebodyask for an answer or opinionThe professor called on me for question 1.
call on somebodyvisit somebodyWe called on you last night but you weren’t home.
call somebody upphoneGive me your phone number and I will call you up when we are in town.
calm downrelax after being angryYou are still mad. You need to calm down before you drive the car.
not care for somebody/ somethingnot like (formal)I don’t care for his behaviour.
catch upget to the same point as somebody elseYou’ll have to run faster than that if you want to catch up with Marty.
check inarrive and register at a hotel or airportWe will get the hotel keys when we check in.
check outleave a hotelYou have to check out of the hotel before 11:00 AM.
check somebody/ something outlook at carefully, investigateThe company checks out all new employees.
check out somebody/ somethinglook at (informal)Check out the crazy hair on that guy!
cheer upbecome happierShe cheered up when she heard the good news.
cheer somebody upmake happierI brought you some flowers to cheer you up.
chip inhelpIf everyone chips in we can get the kitchen painted by noon.
clean something uptidy, cleanPlease clean up your bedroom before you go outside.
come across somethingfind unexpectedlycame across these old photos when I was tidying the closet.
come apartseparateThe top and bottom come apart if you pull hard enough.
come down with somethingbecome sickMy nephew came down with chicken pox this weekend.
come forwardvolunteer for a task or to give evidenceThe woman came forward with her husband’s finger prints.
come from some placeoriginate inThe art of origami comes from Asia.
count on somebody/ somethingrely onI am counting on you to make dinner while I am out.
cross something outdraw a line throughPlease cross out your old address and write your new one.
cut back on somethingconsume lessMy doctor wants me to cut back on sweets and fatty foods.
cut something downmake something fall to the groundWe had to cut the old tree in our yard down after the storm.
cut ininterruptYour father cut in while I was dancing with your uncle.
cut inpull in too closely in front of another vehicleThe bus driver got angry when that car cut in.
cut instart operating (of an engine or electrical device)The air conditioner cuts in when the temperature gets to 22°C.
cut something offremove with something sharpThe doctors cut off his leg because it was severely injured.
cut something offstop providingThe phone company cut off our phone because we didn’t pay the bill.
cut somebody offtake out of a willMy grandparents cut my father off when he remarried.
cut something outremove part of something (usually with scissors and paper)cut this ad out of the newspaper.
do somebody/ something overbeat up, ransack (BrE, informal)He’s lucky to be alive. His shop was done over by a street gang.
do something overdo again (AmE)My teacher wants me to do my essay over because she doesn’t like my topic.
do away with somethingdiscardIt’s time to do away with all of these old tax records.
do something upfasten, closeDo your coat up before you go outside. It’s snowing!
dress upwear nice clothingIt’s a fancy restaurant so we have to dress up.
drop backmove back in a position/groupAndrea dropped back to third place when she fell off her bike.
drop in/ by/ overcome without an appointmentI might drop in/by/over for tea sometime this week.
drop somebody/ something offtake somebody/ something somewhere and leave them/it thereI have to drop my sister off at work before I come over.
drop outquit a class, school etcdropped out of Science because it was too difficult.
eat outeat at a restaurantI don’t feel like cooking tonight. Let’s eat out.
end upeventually reach/do/decideWe ended up renting a movie instead of going to the theatre.
fall apartbreak into piecesMy new dress fell apart in the washing machine.
fall downfall to the groundThe picture that you hung up last night fell down this morning.
fall outseparate from an interiorThe money must have fallen out of my pocket.
fall out(of hair, teeth) become loose and unattachedHis hair started to fall out when he was only 35.
figure something outunderstand, find the answerI need to figure out how to fit the piano and the bookshelf in this room.
fill something into write information in blanks, as on a form (BrE)Please fill in the form with your name, address, and phone number.
fill something outto write information in blanks, as on a form (AmE)The form must be filled out in capital letters.
fill something upfill to the topI always fill the water jug up when it is empty.
find outdiscoverWe don’t know where he lives. How can we find out?
find something outdiscoverWe tried to keep the time of the party a secret, but Samantha found it out.
get something across/ overcommunicate, make understandableI tried to get my point across/over to the judge but she wouldn’t listen.
get along/onlike each otherI was surprised how well my new girlfriend and my sister got along/on.
get aroundhave mobilityMy grandfather can get around fine in his new wheelchair.
get awaygo on a vacationWe worked so hard this year that we had to get away for a week.
get away with somethingdo without being noticed or punishedJason always gets away with cheating in his maths tests.
get backreturnWe got back from our vacation last week.
get something backreceive something you had beforeLiz finally got her Science notes back from my room-mate.
get back at somebodyretaliate, take revengeMy sister got back at me for stealing her shoes. She stole my favourite hat.
get back into somethingbecome interested in something againI finally got back into my novel and finished it.
get on somethingstep onto a vehicleWe’re going to freeze out here if you don’t let us get on the bus.
get over somethingrecover from an illness, loss, difficultyI just got over the flu and now my sister has it.
get over somethingovercome a problemThe company will have to close if it can’t get over the new regulations.
get round to somethingfinally find time to do (AmE: get around to something)I don’t know when I am going to get round to writing the thank you cards.
get togethermeet (usually for social reasons)Let’s get together for a BBQ this weekend.
get upget out of bedgot up early today to study for my exam.
get upstandYou should get up and give the elderly man your seat.
give somebody awayreveal hidden information about somebodyHis wife gave him away to the police.
give somebody awaytake the bride to the altarMy father gave me away at my wedding.
give something awayruin a secretMy little sister gave the surprise party away by accident.
give something awaygive something to somebody for freeThe library was giving away old books on Friday.
give something backreturn a borrowed itemI have to give these skates back to Franz before his hockey game.
give inreluctantly stop fighting or arguingMy boyfriend didn’t want to go to the ballet, but he finally gave in.
give something outgive to many people (usually at no cost)They were giving out free perfume samples at the department store.
give something upquit a habitI am giving up smoking as of January 1st.
give upstop tryingMy maths homework was too difficult so I gave up.
go after somebodyfollow somebodyMy brother tried to go after the thief in his car.
go after somethingtry to achieve somethingwent after my dream and now I am a published writer.
go against somebodycompete, opposeWe are going against the best soccer team in the city tonight.
go aheadstart, proceedPlease go ahead and eat before the food gets cold.
go backreturn to a placeI have to go back home and get my lunch.
go outleave home to go on a social eventWe’re going out for dinner tonight.
go out with somebodydateJesse has been going out with Luke since they met last winter.
go over somethingreviewPlease go over your answers before you submit your test.
go overvisit somebody nearbyI haven’t seen Tina for a long time. I think I’ll go over for an hour or two.
go without somethingsuffer lack or deprivationWhen I was young, we went without winter boots.
grow apartstop being friends over timeMy best friend and I grew apart after she changed schools.
grow backregrowMy roses grew back this summer.
grow into somethinggrow big enough to fitThis bike is too big for him now, but he should grow into it by next year.
grow out of somethingget too big forElizabeth needs a new pair of shoes because she has grown out of her old ones.
grow upbecome an adultWhen Jack grows up he wants to be a fireman.
hand something downgive something used to somebody elsehanded my old comic books down to my little cousin.
hand something insubmitI have to hand in my essay by Friday.
hand something outto distribute to a group of peopleWe will hand out the invitations at the door.
hand something overgive (usually unwillingly)The police asked the man to hand over his wallet and his weapons.
hang instay positive (informal)Hang in there. I’m sure you’ll find a job very soon.
hang onwait a short time (informal)Hang on while I grab my coat and shoes!
hang outspend time relaxing (informal)Instead of going to the party we are just going to hang out at my place.
hang upend a phone callHe didn’t say goodbye before he hung up.
hold somebody/ something backprevent from doing/goingI had to hold my dog back because there was a cat in the park.
hold something backhide an emotionJamie held back his tears at his grandfather’s funeral.
hold onwait a short timePlease hold on while I transfer you to the Sales Department.
hold onto somebody/ somethinghold firmly using your hands or armsHold onto your hat because it’s very windy outside.
hold somebody/ something uprobA man in a black mask held the bank up this morning.
keep on doing somethingcontinue doingKeep on stirring until the liquid comes to a boil.
keep something from somebodynot tellWe kept our relationship from our parents for two years.
keep somebody/ something outstop from enteringTry to keep the wet dog out of the living room.
keep something upcontinue at the same rateIf you keep those results up you will get into a great college.
let somebody downfail to support or help, disappointI need you to be on time. Don’t let me down this time.
let somebody inallow to enterCan you let the cat in before you go to school?
log in (or on)sign in (to a website, database etc)I can’t log in to Facebook because I’ve forgotten my password.
log out (or off)sign out (of a website, database etc)If you don’t log off somebody could get into your account.
look after somebody/ somethingtake care ofI have to look after my sick grandmother.
look down on somebodythink less of, consider inferiorEver since we stole that chocolate bar your dad has looked down on me.
look for somebody/ somethingtry to findI’m looking for a red dress for the wedding.
look forward to somethingbe excited about the futureI’m looking forward to the Christmas break.
look into somethinginvestigateWe are going to look into the price of snowboards today.
look outbe careful, vigilant, and take noticeLook out! That car’s going to hit you!
look out for somebody/ somethingbe especially vigilant forDon’t forget to look out for snakes on the hiking trail.
look something overcheck, examineCan you look over my essay for spelling mistakes?
look something upsearch and find information in a reference book or databaseWe can look her phone number up on the Internet.
look up to somebodyhave a lot of respect forMy little sister has always looked up to me.
make something upinvent, lie about somethingJosie made up a story about why we were late.
make upforgive each otherWe were angry last night, but we made up at breakfast.
make somebody upapply cosmetics toMy sisters made me up for my graduation party.
mix something upconfuse two or more thingsmixed up the twins’ names again!
pass awaydieHis uncle passed away last night after a long illness.
pass outfaintIt was so hot in the church that an elderly lady passed out.
pass something outgive the same thing to many peopleThe professor passed the textbooks out before class.
pass something updecline (usually something good)passed up the job because I am afraid of change.
pay somebody backreturn owed moneyThanks for buying my ticket. I’ll pay you back on Friday.
pay for somethingbe punished for doing something badThat bully will pay for being mean to my little brother.
pick something outchoosepicked out three sweaters for you to try on.
point somebody/ something outindicate with your fingerI’ll point my boyfriend out when he runs by.
put something downput what you are holding on a surface or floorYou can put the groceries down on the kitchen counter.
put somebody downinsult, make somebody feel stupidThe students put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short.
put something offpostponeWe are putting off our trip until January because of the hurricane.
put something outextinguishThe neighbours put the fire out before the firemen arrived.
put something togetherassembleI have to put the crib together before the baby arrives.
put up with somebody/ somethingtolerateI don’t think I can put up with three small children in the car.
put something onput clothing/ accessories on your bodyDon’t forget to put on your new earrings for the party.
run into somebody/ somethingmeet unexpectedlyran into an old school-friend at the mall.
run over somebody/ somethingdrive a vehicle over a person or thingI accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway.
run over/ through somethingrehearse, reviewLet’s run over/through these lines one more time before the show.
run awayleave unexpectedly, escapeThe child ran away from home and has been missing for three days.
run outhave none leftWe ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap.
send something backreturn (usually by mail)My letter got sent back to me because I used the wrong stamp.
set something uparrange, organizeOur boss set a meeting up with the president of the company.
set somebody uptrick, trapThe police set up the car thief by using a hidden camera.
shop aroundcompare pricesI want to shop around a little before I decide on these boots.
show offact extra special for people watching (usually boastfully)He always shows off on his skateboard
sleep overstay somewhere for the night (informal)You should sleep over tonight if the weather is too bad to drive home.
sort something outorganize, resolve a problemWe need to sort the bills out before the first of the month.
stick to somethingcontinue doing something, limit yourself to one particular thingYou will lose weight if you stick to the diet.
switch something offstop the energy flow, turn offThe light’s too bright. Could you switch it off.
switch something onstart the energy flow, turn onWe heard the news as soon as we switched on the car radio.
take after somebodyresemble a family membertake after my mother. We are both impatient.
take something apartpurposely break into piecesHe took the car brakes apart and found the problem.
take something backreturn an itemI have to take our new TV back because it doesn’t work.
take offstart to flyMy plane takes off in five minutes.
take something offremove something (usually clothing)Take off your socks and shoes and come in the lake!
take something outremove from a place or thingCan you take the garbage out to the street for me?
take somebody outpay for somebody to go somewhere with youMy grandparents took us out for dinner and a movie.
tear something uprip into piecestore up my ex-boyfriend’s letters and gave them back to him.
think backremember (often + to, sometimes + on)When I think back on my youth, I wish I had studied harder.
think something overconsiderI’ll have to think this job offer over before I make my final decision.
throw something awaydispose ofWe threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery.
turn something downdecrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc)Please turn the TV down while the guests are here.
turn something downrefuseturned the job down because I don’t want to move.
turn something offstop the energy flow, switch offYour mother wants you to turn the TV off and come for dinner.
turn something onstart the energy, switch onIt’s too dark in here. Let’s turn some lights on.
turn something upincrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc)Can you turn the music up? This is my favourite song.
turn upappear suddenlyOur cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neighbourhood.
try something onsample clothingI’m going to try these jeans on, but I don’t think they will fit.
try something outtestI am going to try this new brand of detergent out.
use something upfinish the supplyThe kids used all of the toothpaste up so we need to buy some more.
wake upstop sleepingWe have to wake up early for work on Monday.
warm somebody/ something upincrease the temperatureYou can warm your feet up in front of the fireplace.
warm upprepare body for exerciseI always warm up by doing sit-ups before I go for a run.
wear offfade awayMost of my make-up wore off before I got to the party.
work outexercisework out at the gym three times a week.
work outbe successfulOur plan worked out fine.
work something outmake a calculationWe have to work out the total cost before we buy the house.

Active and passive voice- British School of Language(BSL) English on Phone | English Speaking course Spoken English course in Lucknow Kanpur Jhansi Delhi

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Active and Passive Voice
Transitive verbs have both active and passive forms:

active passive
The hunter killed the lion.>>The lion was killed by the hunter.
Someone has cleaned the windows>>The windows have been cleaned

The passive forms are made up of the verb be with a past participle:

 bepast participle 
Englishisspokenall over the world
The windowshave beencleaned
Lunchwas beingserved
The workwill befinishedsoon
Theymight have beeninvitedto the party

We sometimes use the verb get to form the passive:
Be careful with the glass. It might get broken.
Peter got hurt in a crash.
If we want to show the person or thing doing the action we use by:
She was attacked by a dangerous dog.
The money was stolen by her husband.
We can use the indirect object as the subject of a passive verb:

active passive
I gave him a book for his birthday>>He was given a book for his birthday.
Someone sent her a cheque for a thousand euros>>She was sent a cheque for a thousand euros.

We can use phrasal verbs in the passive:

active passive
They called off the meeting.>>The meeting was called off.
His grandmother looked after him.>>He was looked after by his grandmother.
They will send him away to school.>>He will be sent away to school.

Some verbs very frequently used in the passive are followed by the to-infinitive:

be supposed tobe expected tobe asked to
be scheduled tobe allowed tobe told to

John has been asked to make a speech at the meeting.
You are supposed to wear a uniform.
The meeting is scheduled to start at seven.
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